Review Article

Embedded Cooling for Wide Bandgap Power Amplifiers: A Review

[+] Author and Article Information
Avram Bar-Cohen

Raytheon - Space and Airborne Systems, USA

Joseph Maurer

Raytheon - Space and Airborne Systems, USA

David H. Altman

Raytheon - Integrated Defense Systems, USA

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4043404 History: Received August 10, 2018; Revised March 21, 2019


Successful utilization of the inherent capability of wide bandgap materials and architectures for RF power amplifiers necessitates the creation of an alternative, Gen3, thermal management paradigm. Recent Gen3 "embedded cooling" efforts in the aerospace industry have focused on overcoming the near-junction thermal limitations of conventional electronic materials through the use of diamond substrates and enhancing removal of the dissipated power with on-chip convective and jet impingement microfluidics. Following the introduction of a modified Johnson Figure-of-Merit (JFOM-k), which includes thermal conductivity to reflect this thermal limitation, attention is turned to the options, challenges, and techniques associated with the development of embedded thermal management technology. This paper describes the GaN on Diamond efforts at DARPA/MTO where GaN-on-Diamond power fluxes, in excess of 500W/mm2, and heat fluxes, above 400W/mm2, were achieved in DARPA's NJTT program. Raytheon's ICECool demonstration MMICs, which achieved 3.1X the CW RF power output and 4.8X the CW RF power density relative to a baseline design, are used to illustrate the efficacy of Gen3 embedded cooling.

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