Application-Driven Reliability Research of Next Generation for Automotive Electronics: Challenges and Approaches

[+] Author and Article Information
Sven Rzepka

Micro Materials Center,
Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano
Systems (ENAS),
Chemnitz D-09126, Germany
e-mail: sven.rzepka@enas.fraunhofer.de

Alexander Otto, Dietmar Vogel, Rainer Dudek

Micro Materials Center,
Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano
Systems (ENAS),
Chemnitz D-09126, Germany

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received September 20, 2017; final manuscript received January 8, 2018; published online March 2, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Ercan Dede.

J. Electron. Packag 140(1), 010903 (Mar 02, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: EP-17-1090; doi: 10.1115/1.4039333 History: Received September 20, 2017; Revised January 08, 2018

The revolutionary changes in automotive industry toward fully connected automated electrical vehicles necessitate developments in automotive electronics at unprecedented speed. Signal, control, and power electronics will heterogeneously be integrated at minimum space with sensors and actuators to form highly compact and ultra-smart systems for functions like traction, lighting, energy management, computation, and communication. Most of these systems will be highly safety relevant with the requirements in system availability exceeding today's already high automotive standards. Unlike the human drivers of today, passengers in the automated car do not pay constant attention to the driving actions of the vehicle. Hence, reliability research is massively challenged by the new automotive applications. Guaranteeing the specified lifetime at statistical average is no longer sufficient. Assuring that no failure of an individual safety relevant part occurs unexpectedly becomes most important. The paper surveys the priority actions underway to cope with the tremendous challenges. It highlights practical examples in all three directions of reliability research: (i) Experimental reliability tests and physical analyses: New and highly efficient accelerated stress tests are able to cover the complex and multifold loading situation in the field. New analytics techniques can identify the typical failure modes and their physical root causes; (ii) Virtual techniques: Schemes of validated simulations allow capturing the physics of failure (PoF) proactively in the design for reliability (DfR) process; and (iii) Prognostics health management (PHM). A new concept is introduced for adding a minimum of PHM features at various levels of automotive electronics to provide functional safety as required for autonomous vehicles. This way, the new generation of reliability methods will continuously provide estimates of the remaining useful life (RUL) for each relevant part under the actual use conditions to allow triggering maintenance in time

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Fig. 1

Trends and challenges in electronics technology for fully automated electrical vehicles

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Fig. 2

Evolution in complexity in the architectures of automotive electronic systems [2]

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Fig. 3

Hierarchical and modular structure of the electronics systems in the future automobiles

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Fig. 4

Local smart systems for drivetrain control (C³U)

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Fig. 5

Equipment and concept for combined environmental stress testing [5]

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Fig. 6

Monitoring of resistor-based daisy-chain structures (left) and of automotive battery management systems electronic boards (right) by combined thermal cycling and vibration testing [8]

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Fig. 7

Power cycling testbench with abilitity to perform superimposed active/passive cycling tests [9]

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Fig. 8

High-temperature cycling system with increased temperature range [10]

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Fig. 9

Thermal cycles between −40 °C and 450 °C. TSV structures showed degradation after 500 cycles (right) [10].

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Fig. 10

Forward voltage evolution during power cycling (left) and corresponding wire-bond failure (right) [11]

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Fig. 11

SEM image and CT scan of vertical crack network at the interface between the Ag-sinter layer and the DCB copper of a MOSFET device [11]

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Fig. 12

Schematic on multifield effects and thermomechanical failure modes to be evaluated by FEM

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Fig. 13

Parametric FEM study on maximum principal stress in an power transistor die after cooling, different joining layers assumed (intermetallic compound [12])

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Fig. 14

Development of the delaminated area between the die and Cu metallization (corner region, symmetric [12])

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Fig. 15

Electric potential, current density, and temperature for testing current at the end of power on [13,14]

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Fig. 16

Stress calculated from the transient temperature field at the end of power on [13,14]

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Fig. 17

Deformation measurement on complete modules under thermal load. Extended optical profiling equipment [15].

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Fig. 18

Out-of-plane displacement of the printed wiring board after heating the module from 25 °C to 125 °C [15,16]

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Fig. 19

The deviations of curvature k field superposed to the printed wiring board area. Zero values mark k extremes, i.e., areas of either highest and lowest damage risk [15,16].

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Fig. 20

Ion trench (left/middle) and pillar milling (right) used to cause stress relief. Relaxation displacements (contour plots) are used to compute stresses [17].

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Fig. 21

Pressure sensor with a stack of piezoresistive sensing films capped by Si3N4 on top of the gaging beam on the loaded membrane [18]

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Fig. 22

Stress measurement on top of a gaging layer stack. Average stress in dependence on depth of ion milling (i) on the narrow sensor structures and (ii) on plain test layers.

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Fig. 23

Multilevel approach to PHM implementation in automotive electronics [23]

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Fig. 24

PHM canary feature for multipin components [27]



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