Research Papers

Ball Grid Array Interconnection Properties of Solderable Polymer–Solder Composites With Low-Melting-Point Alloy Fillers

[+] Author and Article Information
Byung-Seung Yim

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Kangwon National University,
Gangwon-do 25913, South Korea

Young-Eui Shin

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Chung-Ang University,
Seoul 156-756, South Korea
e-mail: shinyoun@cau.ac.kr

Jong-Min Kim

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Chung-Ang University,
Seoul 156-756, South Korea
e-mail: 0326kjm@cau.ac.kr

1Corresponding authors.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received January 25, 2017; final manuscript received September 24, 2017; published online October 13, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Kaushik Mysore.

J. Electron. Packag 139(4), 041007 (Oct 13, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: EP-17-1007; doi: 10.1115/1.4038028 History: Received January 25, 2017; Revised September 24, 2017

In this work, a novel ball grid array (BGA) interconnection process has been developed using solderable polymer–solder composites (SPCs) with low-melting-point alloy (LMPA) fillers to enhance the processability of the conventional capillary underfill technique and to overcome the limitations of the no-flow underfill technique. To confirm the feasibility of the proposed technique, a BGA interconnection test was performed using four types of SPCs with a different LMPA concentration (from 0 to 5 vol %). After the BGA interconnection process, the interconnection characteristics, such as morphology of conduction path and electrical properties of the BGA assemblies, were inspected and compared. The results indicated that BGA assemblies using SPC without LMPA fillers showed weak conduction path formation, including open circuit (solder bump loss) or short circuit formation because of the expansion of air voids within the interconnection area due to the relatively high reflow peak temperature. Meanwhile, assemblies using SPC with 3 vol % LMPAs showed stable metallurgical interconnection formation and electrical resistance due to the relatively low-reflow peak temperature and favorable selective wetting behavior of molten LMPAs for the solder bumps and Cu metallizations.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Qi, F. , Ding, Y. , Zhanlai, D. , and Fu, H. , 2005, “ Reliability of Ball Grid Array (BGA) Assembly With Reworkable Capillary Underfill Material,” Sixth International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology, Shenzhen, China, Aug. 31–Sept. 2, pp. 1–7.
Wang, L. , Kang, S. C. , Li, H. , Baldwin, D. F. , and Wong, C. P. , 2001, “ Evaluation of Reworkable Underfils for Area Array Packaging Encapsulation,” International Symposium on Advanced Packaging Materials: Processes, Properties and Interfaces, Chateau Elan, Braselton, GA, Mar. 11–14, pp. 29–36.
Swaminathan, S. , Sikka, K. K. , Indyk, R. F. , and Sinha, T. , 2016, “ Measurement of Underfill Interfacial and Bulk Fracture Toughness in Flip-Chip Packages,” Microelectron. Reliab., 66, pp. 161–172. [CrossRef]
Kuo, C. T. , Yip, M. C. , and Chiang, K. N. , 2004, “ Time and Temperature-Dependent Mechanical Behavior of Underfill Materials in Electronic Packaging Application,” Microelectron. Reliab., 44(4), pp. 627–638. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Z. , and Wong, C. P. , 2004, “ Recent Advances in Flip-Chip Underfill: Materials, Process, and Reliability,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., 27(3), pp. 515–524. [CrossRef]
Kim, Y. B. , and Sung, J. , 2012, “ Capillary-Driven Micro Flows for the Underfill Process in Microelectronics Packaging,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol., 26(12), pp. 3751–3759. [CrossRef]
Wu, Z. , Cai, J. , Chen, Y. , and Li, J. , 2017, “ Drop Performance Evaluation for Application of Different Underfill Processes,” 18th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology, Harbin, China, Aug. 16–19, pp. 1676–1681.
Pennisi, R. W. , and Papageorge, M. V. , 1992, “ Adhesive and Encapsulant Material With Fluxing Properties,” Motorola, Inc., Chicago, IL, U.S. Patent No. 5128746.
Wong, C. P. , Shi, S. H. , and Jefferson, G. , 1998, “ High Performance No-Flow Underfills for Low-Cost Flip-Chip Applications: Material Characterization,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol. A, 21(3), pp. 450–458. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Z. , and Wong, C. P. , 2003, “ Double-Layer No-Flow Underfill Materials and Process,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., 26(2), pp. 199–205. [CrossRef]
Mostofizadeh, M. , Najari, M. , Das, D. , Pecht, M. , and Frisk, L. , 2016, “ Effect of Epoxy Flux Underfill on Thermal Cycling Reliability of Sn–8Zn3Bi Lead-Free Solder in a Sensor Application,” IEEE 66th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), Las Vegas, NV, May 31–June 3, pp. 2169–2175.
Kolbeck, A. , Hauck, T. , Jendrny, J. , Hahn, O. , and Lang, S. , 2003, “ No-Flow Underfill Process for Flip-Chip Assembly,” 14th European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference and Exhibition, Friedrichshafen, Germany, June 23–25, pp. 1–5.
Chan, Y. C. , Tu, P. L. , and Hung, K. C. , 2001, “ Study of the Self-Alignment of No-Flow Underfill for Micro-BGA Assembly,” Microelectron. Reliab., 41(11), pp. 1867–1875. [CrossRef]
Lee, S. , and Baldwin, D. F. , 2013, “ Heterogeneous Void Nucleation Study in Flip Chip Assembly Process Using No-Flow Underfill,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 136(1), p. 011005. [CrossRef]
Lee, J. I. , Yim, B. S. , Yun, M. S. , and Kim, J. M. , 2016, “ Through-Hole Filling Characteristics of Solderable Polymer Composites With Low Melting Point Alloy Fillers,” J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron., 27(1), pp. 982–991. [CrossRef]
Yim, B. S. , and Kim, J. M. , 2016, “ Thermo-Mechanical Reliability of a Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Incorporated Solderable Isotropic Conductive Adhesive,” Microelectron. Reliab., 57, pp. 93–100. [CrossRef]
Lee, J. I. , Yim, B. S. , Shin, D. , and Kim, J. M. , 2016, “ Three-Dimensional Multi-Layer Through-Hole Filling Properties of Solderable Polymer Composites With Low-Melting-Point Alloy Fillers,” J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron., 27(6), pp. 6223–6231. [CrossRef]
Zeng, K. , Stierman, R. , Chiu, T. C. , Edwards, D. , Ano, K. , and Tu, K. N. , 2005, “ Kirkendall Void Formation in Eutectic SnPb Solder Joints on Bare Cu and Its Effect on Joint Reliability,” J. Appl. Phys., 97(2), p. 024508. [CrossRef]
Onishi, M. , and Fujibuchi, H. , 1975, “ Reaction-Diffusion in the Cu-Sn System,” Trans. JIM, 16(9), pp. 539–547. [CrossRef]
Satyanarayan, S. , and Prabhu, K. N. , 2011, “ Reactive Wetting, Evolution of Interfacial and Bulk IMCs and Their Effect on Mechanical Properties of Eutectic Sn–Cu Solder Alloy,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., 166(1–2), pp. 87–118. [CrossRef] [PubMed]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of BGA interconnection process using (a) conventional capillary flow underfill technique, (b) traditional no-flow underfill technique, and (c) novel BGA interconnection technique using solderable polymer–solder composites proposed in this study

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Configuration of the BGA package and the PCB for the BGA interconnection test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic of the solder ball wetting test procedure using formulated polymer composite. (a) Test board cleaning and solder ball mount, (b) polymer composite application, (c) reflow, and (d) cross-sectional inspection.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Schematic of solder powder wetting test procedure using SPCs. (a) Test board cleaning, (b) SPC mount on the test board using squeegee method, (c) reflow, and (d) test completion and inspection.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Schematic of BGA interconnection test using SPCs. (a) Mask alignment on the cleaned PCB, (b) SPC mount on the PCB using squeegee method, (c) BGA mount and reflow, and (d) completion of BGA interconnection.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Dynamic DSC analysis results for the formulated polymer composite and two types of solder materials, including Sn–58Bi and Sn–3Ag–0.5Cu

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Temperature profile for the BGA interconnection process using SPCs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Wetting morphology of an LMPA solder ball in polymer composite (a) without reductant and (b) with reductant

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Wetting and coalescence behaviors of an LMPA filler on the Cu pattern. (a) Initial condition, (b) beginning of melting, flow, coalescence, and wetting behaviors, (c) curing completion, and (d) cross-sectional inspection result.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Morphologies of BGA assemblies on the PCB using SPCs with different LMPA contents of (a) 0 vol %, (b) 1 vol %, (c) 3 vol %, and (d) 5 vol %

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

X-ray photographs of the BGA assemblies using SPCs with different LMPA contents of (a) 0 vol %, (b) 1 vol %, (c) 3 vol %, and (d) 5 vol %

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Morphologies of the conduction path between BGA package and PCB metallization using SPCs with different LMPA contents of (a) 0 vol %, (b) 1 vol %, (c) 3 vol %, and (d) 5 vol %

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Electrical resistance of the BGA assemblies

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

The interfacial microstructure of the BGA joint using SPC with an LMPA content of 3 vol %. (a) Microstructure of the BGA joint, (b) interfacial microstructure between Cu metallization of the PCB and LMPA, (c) between the solder bump and LMPA, and (d) microstructure of the Sn-rich phase region between the solder bump and LMPA.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In