Research Papers

Influence of Secondary Impact on Printed Wiring Assemblies—Part I: High-Frequency “Breathing Mode” Deformations in the Printed Wiring Board

[+] Author and Article Information
Jingshi Meng

Center for Advanced Life
Cycle Engineering (CALCE),
Mechanical Engineering Department,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742

Abhijit Dasgupta

Fellow ASME
Center for Advanced Life
Cycle Engineering (CALCE),
Mechanical Engineering Department,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742
e-mail: dasgupta@umd.edu

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received September 26, 2015; final manuscript received January 6, 2016; published online March 10, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Jeffrey C. Suhling.

J. Electron. Packag 138(1), 010914 (Mar 10, 2016) (12 pages) Paper No: EP-15-1101; doi: 10.1115/1.4032495 History: Received September 26, 2015; Revised January 06, 2016

Design rules for portable electronic device are continuously striving for thinner printed wiring assemblies (PWAs) and smaller clearances because of ever-increasing demand for functionality and miniaturization. As a result, during accidental drop and impact events, there is an increased probability of internal secondary impact between a PWA and adjacent internal structures. In particular, compared to the initial impact, acceleration pulses caused by contact during secondary impacts are typically characterized by significant increase of amplitudes and frequency bandwidth. The resonant response in the thickness direction of printed wiring boards (PWBs) (termed the dynamic “breathing mode” of response, in this study) acts as a mechanical bandpass filter and places miniature internal structures in some components (such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)) at risk of failure, if any of them have resonant frequencies within the transmitted frequency bandwidth. This study is the first part of a two-part series, presenting qualitative parametric insights into the effect of secondary impacts in a PWA. This first part focuses on analyzing the frequency spectrum of: (i) the impulse caused by secondary impact, (ii) the energy transmitted by the dynamic “breathing” response of multilayer PWBs, and (iii) the consequential dynamic response of typical structures with high resonant frequencies that are mounted on the PWB. Examples include internal deformable structures in typical surface mount technology (SMT) components and in MEMS components. The second part of this series will further explore the effects of the breathing mode of vibration on failures of various SMT components of different frequencies.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Li, G. , and Shemansky, F., Jr. , 2000, “ Drop Test and Analysis on Micro-Machined Structures,” Sens. Actuators Phys., 85(1–3), pp. 280–286. [CrossRef]
Mattila, T. T. , Vajavaara, L. , Hokka, J. , Hussa, E. , Makela, M. , and Halkola, V. , 2013, “ An Approach to Board-Level Drop Reliability Evaluation With Improved Correlation With Use Conditions,” IEEE 63rd Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), Las Vegas, NV, May 28–31, pp. 1259–1268.
Lall, P. , Shantaram, S. , Suhling, J. , and Locker, O. , 2015, “ Stress–Strain Behavior of SAC305 at High Strain Rates,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 137(1), p. 011010. [CrossRef]
Lall, P. , Kothari, N. , and Glover, J. , 2015, “ Mechanical Shock Reliability Analysis and Multiphysics Modeling of MEMS Accelerometers in Harsh Environments,” ASME Paper No. IPACK2015-48457.
Raghunathan, N. , Tsutsui, W. , Chen, W. , and Peroulis, D. , 2015, “ A Single Crystal Silicon Low-g Switch Tolerant to Impact Accelerations up to 24,000 g,” 18th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS), Anchorage, AK, June 21–25, pp. 1144–1147.
Goyal, S. , Upasani, S. , and Patel, D. M. , 1999, “ Improving Impact Tolerance of Portable Electronic Products: Case Study of Cellular Phones,” Exp. Mech., 39(1), pp. 43–52. [CrossRef]
Lim, C. T. , Ang, C. W. , Tan, L. B. , Seah, S. K. W. , and Wong, E. H. , 2003, “ Drop Impact Survey of Portable Electronic Products,” 53rd Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), New Orleans, LA, May 27–30, pp. 113–120.
Meng, J. , and Dasgupta, A. , 2015, “ Influence of Secondary Impact on Failure Modes in PWAs With High Resonant Frequency,” ASME Paper No. IPACK2015-48669.
Togami, T. C. , Baker, W. E. , and Forrestal, M. J. , 1996, “ A Split Hopkinson Bar Technique to Evaluate the Performance of Accelerometers,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 63(2), pp. 353–356. [CrossRef]
Danny, H. D. , and Frew, J. , 2009, “ A Modified Hopkinson Pressure Bar Experiment to Evaluate a Damped Piezoresistive MEMS Accelerometer,” SEM Annual Conference and Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics (SEM 2009), Albuquereque, NM, June 1–4.
Pandey, M. , Aubin, K. , Zalalutdinov, M. , Reichenbach, R. B. , Zehnder, A. T. , Rand, R. H. , and Craighead, H. G. , 2006, “ Analysis of Frequency Locking in Optically Driven MEMS Resonators,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., 15(6), pp. 1546–1554. [CrossRef]
Zhou, Z. J. , Rufer, L. , Salze, E. , Ollivier, S. , and Wong, M. , 2013, “ Wide-Band Aero-Acoustic Microphone With Improved Low-Frequency Characteristics,” 2013 Transducers Eurosensors XXVII: The 17th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS EUROSENSORS XXVII), Barcelona, Spain, June 16–20, pp. 1835–1838.
Shah, A. H. , and Datta, S. K. , 1982, “ Harmonic Waves in a Periodically Laminated Medium,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 18(5), pp. 397–410. [CrossRef]
Podlipenets, A. N. , 1984, “ Propagation of Harmonic Waves in Orthotropic Materials With a Periodic Structure,” Sov. Appl. Mech., 20(7), pp. 604–607. [CrossRef]
Sun, C.-T. , Achenbach, J. D. , and Herrmann, G. , 1968, “ Time-Harmonic Waves in a Stratified Medium Propagating in the Direction of the Layering,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 35(2), pp. 408–411. [CrossRef]
Hu, B. , Schiehlen, W. , and Eberhard, P. , 2003, “ Comparison of Analytical and Experimental Results for Longitudinal Impacts on Elastic Rods,” J. Vib. Control, 9(1–2), pp. 157–174. [CrossRef]
Alsaleem, F. , Younis, M. I. , and Miles, R. , 2008, “ An Investigation Into the Effect of the PCB Motion on the Dynamic Response of MEMS Devices Under Mechanical Shock Loads,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 130(3), p. 031002. [CrossRef]
Meng, J. , Mattila, T. , Dasgupta, A. , Sillanpaa, M. , Jaakkola, R. , Luo, G. , and Andersson, K. , 2012, “ Drop Qualification of MEMS Components in Handheld Electronics at Extremely High Accelerations,” 13th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), San Diego, CA, May 30–June 1, pp. 1020–1027.
Douglas, S. T. , Al-Bassyiouni, M. , and Dasgupta, A. , 2014, “ Experiment and Simulation of Board Level Drop Tests With Intentional Board Slap at High Impact Accelerations,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol., 4(4), pp. 569–580. [CrossRef]
Douglas, S. T. , Al-Bassyiouni, M. , Dasgupta, A. , Gilman, K. , and Brown, A. , 2015, “ Simulation of Secondary Contact to Generate Very High Accelerations,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 137(3), p. 031011. [CrossRef]
Meng, J. , Mattila, T. , Dasgupta, A. , Sillanpaa, M. , Jaakkola, R. , Andersson, K. , Jaakkola, R. , and Hussa, E. , 2012, “ Testing and Multi-Scale Modeling of Drop and Impact Loading of Complex MEMS Microphone Assemblies,” 13th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems (EuroSimE), Cascais, Portugal, Apr. 16–18, pp. 1/8–8/8.
Zhang, A. , 2014, “ High Acceleration Board Level Reliability Drop Test Using Dual Mass Shock Amplifier,” IEEE 64th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), Orlando, FL, May 27–30, pp. 1441–1448.
Habtour, E. , Paulus, M. , and Dasgupta, A. , 2014, “ Modeling Approach for Predicting the Rate of Frequency Change of Notched Beam Exposed to Gaussian Random Excitation,” Shock Vib., 2014(2014), p. e164039.
Morales, A. L. , Nieto, A. J. , Chicharro, J. M. , and Pintado, P. , 2015, “ An Adaptive Pneumatic System for the Attenuation of Random Vibrations,” J. Vib. Control, 21(5), pp. 907–918. [CrossRef]
Tee, T. Y. , Luan, J. , Pek, E. , Lim, C.-T. , and Zhong, Z. , 2004, “ Advanced Experimental and Simulation Techniques for Analysis of Dynamic Responses During Drop Impact,” 54th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), Las Vegas, NV, June 1–4, Vol. 1, pp. 1088–1094.
Balachandran, B. , and Magrab, E. , 2008, Vibrations, Cengage Learning, Boston.
Dassault, 2012, “ Contact Pressure-Overclosure Relationships,” Dassault Systemes, Vélizy-Villacoublay, France.
Greenwood, J. A. , and Williamson, J. B. P. , 1966, “ Contact of Nominally Flat Surfaces,” Proc. R. Soc. London. Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 295(1442), pp. 300–319. [CrossRef]
Polycarpou, A. A. , and Etsion, I. , 1999, “ Analytical Approximations in Modeling Contacting Rough Surfaces,” ASME J. Tribol., 121(2), pp. 234–239. [CrossRef]
Shi, X. , and Polycarpou, A. A. , 2005, “ Measurement and Modeling of Normal Contact Stiffness and Contact Damping at the Meso Scale,” ASME J. Vib. Acoust., 127(1), pp. 52–60. [CrossRef]
Timoshenko, S. P. , 1990, Vibration Problems in Engineering, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Kolsky, H. , 1963, Stress Waves in Solids, Courier, New York.
Liu, J. , Martin, D. T. , Kadirvel, K. , Nishida, T. , Cattafesta, L. , Sheplak, M. , and Mann, B. P. , 2008, “ Nonlinear Model and System Identification of a Capacitive Dual-Backplate MEMS Microphone,” J. Sound Vib., 309(1–2), pp. 276–292. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Background and approach

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

FE model for secondary impact tests

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Free vibration, Rayleigh damping

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Pressure-overclosure correlation, slop defines contact stiffness

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Secondary impact, soft contact

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Sample impact acceleration input to the PWB

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Spectrum of input pulses with different shapes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Multilayered 1D unit cell structure for PWB

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Acceleration amplitude transfer function H(ω) obtained based on random vibration simulation (example condition: three-layer model, ζ = 0.04)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Sample output from time domain simulation (three-layer PWB, ζ = 0.04, pulse shape = triangle, tp = 1.5 × 10−5 s)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Quantities used in the definition of amplitude ratio γ

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Amplitude transfer functions for multilayer PWBs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Amplitude ratio γ of high-frequency acceleration



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In