Research Papers

Multiple Quality Characteristics Optimization of Ball Grid Array Wire Bonding Process

[+] Author and Article Information
Tzeng Yih-Fong

Department of Mechanical and
Automation Engineering,
National Kaohsiung First University
of Science and Technology,
Kaohsiung City 811, Taiwan

Chen Fu-Chen

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Kun-Shan University,
YongKang District,
Tainan City 710, Taiwan

Chen Chih-Huang

Department of Mechanical
and Automation Engineering,
National Kaohsiung First University
of Science and Technology,
Kaohsiung City 811, Taiwan

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received September 19, 2014; final manuscript received August 25, 2015; published online October 1, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Jeffrey C. Suhling.

J. Electron. Packag 137(4), 041004 (Oct 01, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: EP-14-1080; doi: 10.1115/1.4031471 History: Received September 19, 2014; Revised August 25, 2015

This paper presents an integrated approach combining principal component analysis (PCA) and Taguchi methods to develop a ball grid array (BGA), gold (Au) wire bonding process with multiple quality characteristics optimization. Eight main process factors of BGA wire bonding technology are selected as the control factors for parameter design. They are the factor A (seating ultrasonic generator (USG)), factor B (TIP height), factor C (C/V), factor D (USG current), factor E (USG bond time), factor F (bond force), factor G (FS threshold), and factor H (FAB size). The quality characteristics of the process in the study, including the wire pull strength, the ball shear strength, the ball thickness difference, the ball size difference, and the percentage of the Au–Al intermetallic compound (IMC) are measured. The optimal process parameters that meet the requirements for multiple quality characteristics are A1B3C1D3E3F1G1H2. They are then used to be tested for verification. Experimental results confirm that the optimal process design indeed enhances the quality characteristics investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) results also show that the most important control factors affecting the quality characteristics are factor B (TIP height), factor C (C/V), and factor G (FS threshold), which accounts for 72.34% of total process variance. Thus, they must be strictly monitored during processing.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Ball thickness and size definitions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Intermetallic coverage measurement for the bonded interface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Flow chart for multiple quality characteristics optimization of Au wire bonding process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Response graph on total PC score

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Fig. 7

The BGA golden wire bonded workpiece by best design and OM photo of its first bond

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Fig. 8

Photos of the samples by current and optimal designs



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