Research Papers

Thermal Modeling of Microfluidic Channels for Cooling High Power Resistors on Multilayer Organic Liquid Crystal Polymer Substrate

[+] Author and Article Information
Outmane Lemtiri Chlieh

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Technology Square Research Building,
85 Fifth Street NW,
Atlanta, GA 30308
e-mail: olemtiri@gatech.edu

Wasif T. Khan

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Technology Square Research Building,
85 Fifth Street NW,
Atlanta, GA 30308;
Department of Electrical Engineering,
Lahore University of Management Sciences,
Opposite Sector U, D.H.A,
Lahore Cantt,
Lahore, Punjab 54000, Pakistan
e-mail: wasif.tanveer@lums.edu.pk

John Papapolymerou

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Technology Square Research Building,
85 Fifth Street NW,
Atlanta, GA 30308
e-mail: john.papapolymerou@ece.gatech.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received November 24, 2014; final manuscript received May 15, 2015; published online June 8, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Pradip Dutta.

J. Electron. Packag 137(3), 031009 (Sep 01, 2015) (12 pages) Paper No: EP-14-1104; doi: 10.1115/1.4030643 History: Received November 24, 2014; Revised May 15, 2015; Online June 08, 2015

Thermal management is an important aspect for any packaging technology incorporating high power devices. In this paper, we present an integrated microfluidic cooling solution for high power surface mount thin film resistors on liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrate. High power resistors are mounted on top of a 50.8 μm (2 mil) LCP layer, a coolant can circulate, thanks to a micropump, inside a Duroid micromachined channel beneath the LCP layer in order to take away the generated heat. A thermal model is combined from existing thermal models in literature to predict the overall thermal resistance of the organic heat sink in the case of a moving coolant inside the microfluidic channel. Four sets of microfluidic channels with different thicknesses are fabricated and tested. Temperature measurements of resistors with different power ratings and sizes on top of these channels agree with the model predictions and the simulations in the case of static (nonmoving) and dynamic (moving) distilled (DI) water. With this integrated solution, the case temperature of the 40 W resistor, which is mounted on the 254 μm (10 mil) microchannel, can be cooled down to 121 °C at room temperature while the resistor is dissipating 23.2 W of power; this resistor fails to operate beyond 13.3 W in the absence of fluid circulation. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the best thermal cooling performance ever achieved on multilayer organic substrates.

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Fig. 1

Two-dimensional (2D) cross section of the multilayer organic structure with heat circulation paths

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Fig. 2

Multilayer model adapted to the microfluidic case study

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Fig. 3

Convective model adapted to the microfluidic case study

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Fig. 4

Flow in rectangular microchannels

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Fig. 5

Variation of the forced convection thermal resistance with (a) channel thickness and (b) channel width

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Fig. 6

Lumped thermal model for the microfluidic multilayer structure

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Fig. 7

comsol 3D model for (a) dynamic case and (b) static case

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Fig. 8

Top view pictures of the high power resistors: (a) 30 W and (b) 40 W

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Fig. 9

Resistors power derating curves

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Fig. 10

Cross section of the laminated multilayer stack-up

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Fig. 11

Package fabrication flow. (1) Double cladded Duroid + 2 bondplies, (2) copper etching from both sides of Duroid, (3) cavity ablating on Duroid and bondplies, (4) double cladded LCP, (5) copper etching from one side of LCP, (6) via drilling, (7) lamination, and (8) final micromachined structure.

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Fig. 12

5 × 3 samples: (a) bottom view (before lamination) and (b) top view (after lamination)

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Fig. 13

Disassembled microfluidic channel

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Fig. 14

Resistors on microfluidic channels: (a) 30 W resistor and (b) 40 W resistor

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Fig. 15

(a) Temperature measurement test bench and (b) picture of the measurement setup

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Fig. 16

Junction-to-ambient thermal resistance comparison between measured data, model, and simulation for (a) static water and (b) dynamic water



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