Research Papers

A Computational and Experimental Investigation of Synthetic Jets for Cooling of Electronics

[+] Author and Article Information
Mehmet Arik

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Ozyegin University,
Alemdag Mah. Orman Sok. No:13,
Cekmekoy, Istanbul 34782, Turkey
e-mail: mehmet.arik@ozyegin.edu.tr

Yogen V. Utturkar

GE Global Research Center,
Thermal Systems Organization,
Niskayuna, NY 12309
e-mail: utturkar@research.ge.com

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received February 12, 2014; final manuscript received September 8, 2014; published online January 19, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Madhusudan Iyengar.

J. Electron. Packag 137(2), 021005 (Jun 01, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: EP-14-1018; doi: 10.1115/1.4029067 History: Received February 12, 2014; Revised September 08, 2014; Online January 19, 2015

Seamless advancements in electronics industry resulted in high performance computing. These innovations lead to smaller electronics systems with higher heat fluxes than ever. However, shrinking nature of real estate for thermal management has created a need for more effective and compact cooling solutions. Novel cooling techniques have been of interest to solve the demand. One such technology that functions with the principle of creating vortex rings is called synthetic jets. These jets are mesoscale devices operating as zero-net-mass-flux principle by ingesting and ejection of high velocity working fluid from a single opening. These devices produce periodic jet streams, which may have peak velocities over 20 times greater than conventional, comparable size fan velocities. These jets enhance heat transfer in both natural and forced convection significantly over bare and extended surfaces. Recognizing the heat transfer physics over surfaces require a fundamental understanding of the flow physics caused by microfluid motion. A comprehensive computational and experimental study has been performed to understand the flow physics of a synthetic jet. Computational study has been performed via FLUENT commercial software, while the experimental study has been performed by using laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). Since synthetic jets are typical sine-wave excited between 20 and 60 V range, they have an orifice peak velocity of over 60 m/s, resulting in a Reynolds number of over 2000. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions on the vortex dipole location fall within 10% of the experimental measurement uncertainty band.

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Fig. 1

Typical operation of a synthetic jet

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Fig. 2

CFD model for simulating time-dependent synthetic jet flow field

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Fig. 3

Velocity vectors for the 500 Hz, 80 V jet simulation, and frame rate for above illustration is 5000/s

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Fig. 4

Experimental setup for flow visualization

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Fig. 5

Schematic of the experimental setup

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Fig. 6

Typical synthetic jet heat transfer enhancement with driving voltage (200 < f < 800 Hz)

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Fig. 7

Flow field at 60 V and 60 Hz at 10 mm distance

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Fig. 8

Flow sequence at 80 V and 500 Hz at 10 mm distance

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Fig. 9

Flow sequence at 80 V and 500 Hz at 25 mm distance

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Fig. 10

Flow sequence at 100 V and 200 Hz at 25 mm distance

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Fig. 11

Synthetic jet flow scheme operating at 100 V and 500 Hz located at 10 mm from jet

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Fig. 12

Vortex dipole tracking in both experimental and unsteady CFD analysis

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Fig. 13

(a) Variation of normalized (by orifice width) dipole width with time (500 Hz, 60 V) and (b) variation of normalized (by orifice width) dipole traverse distance with time (500 Hz, 60 V)

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Fig. 14

(a) Normalized (by orifice width) dipole width with time (500 Hz, 80 V) and (b) normalized (by orifice width) traverse distance with time (500 Hz, 80 V)

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Fig. 15

(a) Normalized (by the jet peak velocity) dipole traverse velocity (500 Hz, 60 V) and (b) normalized (by the jet peak velocity) dipole traverse velocity (500 Hz, 80 V)



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