Research Papers

Compact Model-Based Microfluidic Controller for Energy Efficient Thermal Management Using Single Tier and Three-Dimensional Stacked Pin-Fin Enhanced Microgap

[+] Author and Article Information
Xuefei Han, Yogendra K. Joshi

The George W. Woodruff School
of Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received August 1, 2013; final manuscript received September 10, 2014; published online October 15, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Gongnan Xie.

J. Electron. Packag 137(1), 011008 (Oct 15, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: EP-13-1083; doi: 10.1115/1.4028574 History: Received August 01, 2013; Revised September 10, 2014

Overcooling of electronic devices and systems results in excess energy consumption, which can be reduced by closely linking cooling requirements with actual power dissipation. A thermal model-based flow rate controller for single phase liquid cooled single tier and three-dimensional (3D) stacked chips, using pin-fin enhanced microgap was studied in this paper. Thermal compact models of a planar and 3D stacked two-layer pin-fin enhanced microgap were developed, which ran 104-105 times faster than using full-field computational fluid dynamics/heat transfer (CFD/HT) method, with reasonable accuracy and spatial details. Compact model was used in conjunction with a flow rate control strategy to provide the needed amount of liquid to cool the heat sources to the desired temperature range. Example case studies show that the estimated energy savings in pump power is about 25% compared with pumping fluid at a constant flow rate.

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Fig. 1

Staggered pin-fin enhanced microgap configurations: (a) single tier configuration and (b) double tier configuration

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Fig. 2

Boundary conditions for mesh independence study: (a) one row and (b) four rows

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Fig. 3

Boundary layer mesh

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Fig. 4

Discretization of pin-fin enhanced microgap: (a) planar view and (b) 3D view of cell P and its neighbors

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Fig. 5

Fluid cells: (a) north side adjacent to pin and (b) south side adjacent to pin

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Fig. 6

Fluid cells adjacent to channel walls: (a) north side adjacent to wall and (b) south side adjacent to wall

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Fig. 7

Comparison of compact model and CFD model—single tier steady state: (a) case 1 and (b) case 2

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Fig. 8

Comparison of compact model and CFD model—single tier transient: (a) maximum temperature varies with time, at t = 0, flow and uniform heating both activated, (b) maximum temperature varies with time, at t = 0, flow unchanged, heating powermap changed, (c) initial powermap for (b), nonuniform heating, and (d) powermap applied starting at t = 0 for (b), nonuniform heating

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Fig. 9

Double tier staggered pin-fin enhanced microgap vertical layout

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Fig. 10

Control volume of bottom solid layer

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Fig. 11

Single pin contacting different material at tip

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Fig. 12

Powermap for top and bottom active layer

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Fig. 13

Comparison of compact model and CFD model—double tier steady state

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Fig. 14

Comparison of compact model and CFD model—double tier transient: (a) maximum temperature varies with time, at t = 0, flow changed, heating unchanged, (b) maximum temperature varies with time, at t = 0, flow unchanged, heating powermap changed, (c) initial powermap for top tier in (b), nonuniform heating, and (d) initial powermap for bottom tier in (b), at t = 0, nonuniform heating

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Fig. 15

Flow rate control scheme

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Fig. 16

MatlabSimulink control model

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Fig. 17

Flow rate determination algorithm—single tier

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Fig. 18

Temperature under control—single tier: (a) temperature and mass flow rate varies with time, with controller activated, (b) temperature details at t = 10 min, and (c) temperature details at t = 80 min

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Fig. 19

Flow rate determination algorithm—double tier

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Fig. 20

Temperature under control—double tier



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