Research Papers

UCPD Model for Pb-Free Solder

[+] Author and Article Information
Michael K. Neilsen

Sandia National Laboratories,
P.O. Box 5800, MS0346,
Albuquerque, NM 87185
e-mail: mkneils@sandia.gov

Paul T. Vianco

Sandia National Laboratories,
P.O. Box 5800, MS0889,
Albuquerque, NM 87185
e-mail: ptvianc@sandia.govl

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received September 9, 2013; final manuscript received February 6, 2014; published online September 19, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Satish Chaparala.

J. Electron. Packag 136(4), 041006 (Sep 19, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: EP-13-1101; doi: 10.1115/1.4026851 History: Received September 09, 2013; Revised February 06, 2014

A unified creep plasticity damage (UCPD) model for eutectic Sn-Pb and Pb-free solders was developed and implemented into finite element analysis codes. The new model will be described along with the relationship between the model's damage evolution equation and an empirical Coffin–Manson relationship for solder fatigue. Next, developments needed to model crack initiation and growth in solder joints will be described. Finally, experimentally observed cracks in typical solder joints subjected to thermal mechanical fatigue are compared with model predictions. Finite element based modeling is particularly suited for predicting solder joint fatigue of advanced electronics packaging, e.g. package-on-package (PoP), because it allows for evaluation of a variety of package materials and geometries.

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Fig. 1

Coffin–Manson fatigue life curves for SAC solder

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Fig. 2

Comparison of uniaxial compression test UCPD model predictions (solid lines) with experimental data (symbols) for SAC396. Numbers in figure are test temperature and nominal engineering strain rates.

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Fig. 3

Finite element model of one-fourth of a small 0603 resistor on 1.5748 mm thick FR-4 printed wiring board

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Fig. 4

Temperature history used for simulation

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Fig. 5

Inelastic strain rate history at points A, B, and C (see Fig. 7(a) for Point locations) in the solder joint

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Fig. 6

Damage predicted at three different locations in solder joint with acceleration factors of 1, 50, and 600. Locations of Points A, B, and C are shown in Fig. 7(a).

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Fig. 7

Contour plots of damage in the solder joint after 1200 thermal cycles

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Fig. 8

Local model predictions for cycles needed to initiate and grow cracks to failure (electrical open) are mesh dependent

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Fig. 9

Element size dependent model (Eq. (21)) predicted cycles to initiate and grow cracks to failure (electrical open)

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Fig. 10

CLCC-20 model and contour plots of solder life showing crack extent at 350 and electrical open at 1,150 cycles. Arrow shows end of crack extent.



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