Research Papers

Enhanced Diffusion of Silver Atoms on the Surface of Nanoparticles at Low Temperatures

[+] Author and Article Information
Jung-Il Hong

Department of Emerging Materials Science,
Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu, 711-873, Korea

Kyoung-Sik Moon

e-mail: ks.moon@mse.gatech.edu
School of Materials Science and Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
771 Ferst Drive,
Atlanta, Georgia 30332

C. P. Wong

School of Materials Science and Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
771 Ferst Drive,
Atlanta, Georgia 30332;
Faculty of Engineering,
The Chinese University of Hong Kong,
Hong Kong, PRC

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received December 23, 2011; final manuscript received September 6, 2012; published online March 26, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Jianmin Qu.

J. Electron. Packag 135(1), 011002 (Mar 26, 2013) (4 pages) Paper No: EP-11-1101; doi: 10.1115/1.4023910 History: Received December 23, 2011; Revised September 06, 2012

Microstructure development of 35 nm silver nanoparticles during the low temperature sintering was examined in situ as the ambient temperature increased from room temperature up to 450 °C using X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy techniques. Measured particle size increased rapidly up to ∼90 nm in the temperature range between 130 and 250 °C, which is thought to be from the atomic diffusion on the surfaces of nanoparticles. On the other hand, further increase of the annealing temperature results in little or almost no change in the grain size. Therefore, the sintering effect due to the surface diffusion of silver atoms is active only on the surface of nanoparticles whose size is less than ∼90 nm, indicating enhanced atomic mobility of silver atoms on the surface of nanoparticles.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) XRD patterns of silver particles obtained at high temperatures. (b) Magnified view of (111), (200), (220), (311), and (222) peaks at various temperatures plotted together to directly see the change in the peak widths. (c) Silver grain sizes calculated from the peak widths at the temperatures ranging from room temperature to 450 °C. Two separate measurements were taken to give essentially identical results.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

TEM images of silver nanoparticles examined at various temperatures. Representative images at selected temperatures are shown. All images were taken at the same magnification.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Low angle grain boundary formed as two neighboring particles are connected. Arrays of dislocations are present at the interface.



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