Research Papers

Analysis and Prediction of Vibration-Induced Solder Joint Failure for a Ceramic Column Grid Array Package

[+] Author and Article Information
Andy Perkins

Computer Aided Simulation for Package Reliability (CASPaR) Laboratory, The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0569

Suresh K. Sitaraman1

Computer Aided Simulation for Package Reliability (CASPaR) Laboratory, The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0569suresh.sitaraman@me.gatech.edu


Corresponding author.

J. Electron. Packag 130(1), 011012 (Feb 14, 2008) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2837520 History: Received December 04, 2006; Revised July 30, 2007; Published February 14, 2008

Solder joint fatigue failure under vibration loading continues to be a concern in microelectronic industry. Existing literature has not adequately addressed high-cycle fatigue failure of high-lead solder joints, especially under a broad spectrum of vibration frequencies. Also, damage mapping across solder joints in an area-array package has not been effectively studied using numerical models and experimental cross sectioning. This paper aims to develop an experimental and modeling approach that can accurately determine the solder joint behavior of electronic components under vibration conditions. In particular, this paper discusses the out-of-plane sinusoidal vibration experiments at 1G, numerical modeling, and fatigue life prediction for a 42.5×42.5×4mm3 1089 input∕output ceramic column grid array (CCGA) package on a 133×56×2.8mm3 FR4 board. Detailed investigation and characterization involving dye-and-pry analysis, microstructural examination, and numerical modeling enabled the development of a high-cycle stress-based equation for lead-containing CCGA under sinusoidal loading. The developed approach has been applied to a number of cases including a CCGA package with a heat sink as well as a CCGA package subjected to frequency sweeps. It is seen that the predictions from the developed model agree well with experimental data and that the developed model can map the evolution of solder damage across all solder joints and can also provide important design recommendations in terms of solder joint location as well as heat sink attachment.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Cross section of a CLASP CCGA Package and a CCGA solder column

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Figure 2

Experimental setup for CCGA on an FR4 board with clamped edges

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Figure 3

Electrical daisy chain rings for a CCGA test vehicle

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Figure 4

Linear sweep test for test vehicle A to determine the damping ratio ξ

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Figure 5

Gout versus fatigue life cycles for R0, R1, and RXX

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Figure 6

Fixture to remove substrate from board for dye-and-pry analysis

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Figure 7

Dye-and-pry analysis of test vehicle D showing crack growth and distribution

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Figure 8

Ductile cup∕cone failure of solder joints due to substrate removal versus brittle failure due to vibration fatigue

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Figure 9

Typical vibration crack in the 90Pb10Sn column at the 63Sn37Pb fillet on the FR4 board side

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Figure 10

SEM images of high-cycle fatigue crack in the 90Pb10Sn column

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Figure 11

3D FEM with solid and beam elements

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Figure 12

Mode shapes of the 1089 CCGA package on the FR4 board

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Figure 13

Solder joint stresses for CCGA solder joint array predicted by FEM less than 1G input acceleration

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Figure 14

Weibull fit of fatigue data for 1.0Gin at natural frequency of test vehicles

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Figure 15

von Mises stresses for J0 solder joint under a 1G sinusoidal acceleration driven at the fn of 308Hz

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Figure 16

Plot of N50 versus σa for each daisy chain ring

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Figure 17

Normalized fatigue life for CCGA solder joint array based on input acceleration Gin of 1G

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Figure 18

Increments for predicting fatigue life by Miner’s rule



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