Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement Using a Submerged, Vibration-Induced Jet

[+] Author and Article Information
Steven W. Tillery, Samuel N. Heffington, Marc K. Smith, Ari Glezer

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering,  Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405

J. Electron. Packag 128(2), 145-149 (Feb 01, 2006) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2188954 History: Received November 15, 2004; Revised February 01, 2006

In this paper we describe a new two-phase cooling cell based on channel boiling and a vibration-induced liquid jet whose collective purpose is to delay the onset of critical heat flux by forcibly dislodging the small vapor bubbles that form on the heated surface during nucleate boiling and propelling them into the cooler bulk liquid within the cell. The submerged turbulent vibration-induced jet is generated by a vibrating piezoelectric diaphragm operating at resonance. The piezoelectric driver induces pressure oscillations in the liquid near the surface of the diaphragm, resulting in the time-periodic formation and collapse of cavitation bubbles that entrain surrounding liquid and generate a strong liquid jet. The resultant jet is directed at the heated surface in the channel. The jet enhances boiling heat transfer by removing attached vapor bubbles that insulate the surface and provides additional forced convection heat transfer on the surface. A small cross flow maintained within the cell increases heat transfer even further by sweeping the bubbles downstream, where they condense. In addition, the cross flow keeps the temperature of the liquid within the cell regulated. In the present experiments, the cell dimensions were 51×25×76mm and water was the working liquid. Heat fluxes above 300Wcm2 were obtained at surface temperatures near 150°C for a horizontal cell.

Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Dye visualization photograph of a turbulent vibration-induced jet. The dye was entrained radially from an injection port near the edge of the diaphragm.

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Figure 2

A photograph of the vibration-induced jet, heat transfer cell. The front and rear sides were fitted with an acrylic sheet to provide an unobstructed view inside the cell.

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Figure 3

A sketch of the vibration-induced jet removing vapor bubbles from the heated surface in the cell

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Figure 4

A visualization of the vibration-induced jet removing vapor bubbles from the surface of the thermal test die. Photographs (a)–(f) were taken at 0.02s intervals for a total duration of 0.1s.

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Figure 5

The effect of direct impingement by the vibration-induced jet on the heat flux from the die surface for an inlet water temperature of 20°C (open symbols) and 60°C (filled symbols). Jet off (squares) and jet on (diamonds).

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Figure 6

The effect of inclining the heat transfer cell by 45 deg to the horizontal. Horizontal cell with no jet (◻), horizontal cell with a jet (▵), and inclined cell with a jet (×).



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