A Damage-Mechanics-Based Constitutive Model for Solder Joints

[+] Author and Article Information
C. Basaran1

Electronic Packaging Laboratory, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NYcjb@buffalo.edu

Y. Zhao

 Analog Devices, Boston, MA

H. Tang

 NEC Honda Electronics, Detroit, MI

J. Gomez

 University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY


Corresponding author.

J. Electron. Packag 127(3), 208-214 (Jul 23, 2004) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1939822 History: Received June 28, 2004; Revised July 23, 2004

Sn-Pb eutectic solder alloy is extensively used in microelectronics packaging interconnects. Due to the high homologous temperature, eutectic Sn-Pb solder exhibits creep-fatigue interaction and significant time-, temperature-, stress-, and rate-dependent material characteristics. The microstructure is often unstable, having significant effects on the flow behavior of solder joints at high homologous temperatures. Such complex behavior makes constitutive modeling an extremely difficult task. A viscoplasticity model unified with a thermodynamics-based damage concept is presented. The proposed model takes into account isotropic and kinematic hardening, and grain size coarsening evolution. The model is verified against various test data, and shows strong application potential for modeling thermal viscoplastic behavior and fatigue life of solder joints in microelectronics packaging.

Copyright © 2005 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Constant A versus temperature (based on Adams test data)

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Figure 2

Present model results versus Adams test data. (a) Strain rate=1.67×10−2∕s, variable temperature; (b) Strain rate=1.67×10−3∕s, variable temperature; (c) Strain rate=1.67×10−1∕s, variable temperature; (d) Room temperature, variable strain rate=1.67×10−3∕s.

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Figure 3

Present model results versus Skipor’s test data. (a) Strain rate=1.0×10−1∕s, variable temperature; (b) Strain rate=1.0×10−2∕s, variable temperature; (c) Strain rate=1.0×10−3∕s, variable temperature; (d) Strain rate=1.0×10−4∕s, variable temperature.

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Figure 4

Present model results versus McDowell’s test data. (a) Strain rate=1.0×10−4∕s, variable temperature and (b) strain rate=1.0×10−2∕s, variable temperature.

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Figure 5

Thin-layer solder. Present model versus test results. Cyclic shear (a) strain rate=1.67×10−3∕s, ISR=0.005; (b) strain rate=1.67×10−3∕s, ISR=0.012; (c) strain rate=1.67×10−3∕s, ISR=0.02; and (d) Strain rate=1.67×10−3∕s, variable ISR.

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Figure 6

Thin-layer solder joint tested in cyclic shear



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