Thermal Interfacing Techniques for Electronic Equipment—A Perspective

[+] Author and Article Information
Wataru Nakayama, Arthur E. Bergles

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742

J. Electron. Packag 125(2), 192-199 (Jun 10, 2003) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1568127 History: Received June 19, 2001; Online June 10, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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Examples containing typical morphologies of thermal interfaces—(a) air-cooled thyristor unit (from Kaplan 2); (b) thermal conduction module (Nakayama and Bergles 1); and (c) ball grid array package with a heat spreader
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Typical setup to measure thermal contact resistance
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Thermal conductance versus contact pressure: the results of case study for a water-cooled power device. hc=contact conductance for silicon/copper contact derived from Yovanovich correlation (Eq. (1)). hcnv=heat transfer coefficient on the channel wall (2m/s water flow in a 1 cm hydraulic diameter channel). ht=conductance for heat flow across a 2-mm-thick copper wall.
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Exploded view of a portable computer
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Heat spreader and warped heat source—(a) convex warping of heat source, and (b) concave warping of heat source
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Thermal resistance versus heat spreader thickness: the results of computations for the cases of Figs. 5(a) and (b). The heat source radius is 1 cm. The heat spreader is made from copper and has a 3-cm radius. The maximum warp gap is 200 μm. The gap is filled with a material having a thermal conductivity 1 W/m K. The heat flow originates from the heat source and ends at the peripheral edge of the spreader. Rc=contact resistance computed from Eq. (9). R1D=contact resistance in one-dimensional heat flow.



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