Cleaning and Reflow of Pb-Sn C4 Solder Bumps

[+] Author and Article Information
Caroline S. Lee

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139

Doug C. Crafts

Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA

T. W. Eagar

POSCO Professor of Materials Engineering, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139

J. Electron. Packag 117(4), 281-287 (Dec 01, 1995) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2792106 History: Received August 29, 1994; Revised May 19, 1995; Online November 06, 2007


The Pb/Sn electroplating process for C4 technology requires the ability to etch Ball Limiting Metallurgy (BLM) in the presence of the Pb/Sn bumps. Upon etching, a surface corrosion layer is formed and an appropriate cleaning acid must be used to remove this layer prior to solder reflow of the bumps. It was found that the morphology of the surface layer formed upon etching on the Pb/Sn solder bumps is critically dependent on the concentration of the etchant. Using a gravimetric test, XPS and AES analysis, PbO containing small amounts of Sn and S, was identified to be the primary component of the surface. The thickness morphology, composition and the growth rate of the layer are critically dependent on the sulfur from the etchant. In H2 O2 -rich solutions, the surface appears to be loosely packed and the growth rate on the surface of the bump was found to be reaction-rate limited; whereas, in H2 SO4 -rich solutions, the diffusion rate is the controlling step informing the surface layer on the solder bumps, thus producing a thin and dense layer.

Copyright © 1995 by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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