Two-Phase Electronic Cooling Using Mini-Channel and Micro-Channel Heat Sinks: Part 2—Flow Rate and Pressure Drop Constraints

[+] Author and Article Information
M. B. Bowers, I. Mudawar

Electronic Cooling Research Center, Boiling and Two-Phase Flow Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907

J. Electron. Packag 116(4), 298-305 (Dec 01, 1994) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2905701 History: Received January 01, 1994; Revised April 30, 1994; Online April 28, 2008


Increased rate of heat dissipation from electronic chips was explored by the application of flow boiling in mini-channel (D = 2.54 mm) and micro-channel (D = 510 μm) heat sinks with special emphasis on reducing pressure drop and coolant flow rate. A pressure drop model was developed that accounts for the single-phase inlet region, the single- and two-phase heated region, and the two-phase unheated outlet region. Inlet and outlet losses associated with the abrupt contraction and expansion, respectively, were also accounted for, and so were the effects of compressibility and flashing within the two-phase region. Overall, the major contributor to pressure drop was the acceleration caused by evaporation in the channels; however, compressibility effects proved significant for the micro-channel geometry. Based upon practical considerations such as pressure drop, erosion, choking, clogging, and manufacturing ease, the mini-channel geometry was determined to offer inherent advantages over the micro-channel geometry. The latter is preferred only in situations calling for dissipation of high heat fluxes where minimizing weight and liquid inventory is a must.

Copyright © 1994 by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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