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Research Papers

Thermal Control Strategies for Reliable and Energy-Efficient Data Centers

[+] Author and Article Information
Rehan Khalid

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Villanova University,
800 Lancaster Avenue,
Villanova, PA 19085
e-mail: rkhalid@villanova.edu

Aaron P. Wemhoff

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Villanova University,
800 Lancaster Avenue,
Villanova, PA 19085

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received July 13, 2018; final manuscript received June 18, 2019; published online July 12, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Baris Dogruoz.

J. Electron. Packag 141(4), 041004 (Jul 12, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: EP-18-1058; doi: 10.1115/1.4044129 History: Received July 13, 2018; Revised June 18, 2019

Two self-developed control schemes, ON/OFF and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), were applied on a hybrid evaporative and direct expansion (DX)-based model data center cooling system to assess the impact of controls on reliability and energy efficiency. These control schemes can be applied independently or collectively, thereby saving the energy spent on mechanical refrigeration by using airside economization and/or evaporative cooling. Various combinations of system-level controls and component-level controls are compared to a baseline no-controls case. The results show that reliability is consistently met by employing only sophisticated component-level controls. However, the recommended conditions are met approximately 50% of the simulated time by employing system-level controls only (i.e., SCADA) but with a reduction in data center cooling system power usage effectiveness (PUE) values from 3.76 to 1.42. Moreover, the recommended conditions are met at all averaged times with an even lower cooling system PUE of 1.13 by combining system-level controls only (SCADA and ON/OFF controls). Thus, the study introduces a simple method to compare control schemes for reliable and energy-efficient data center operation. The work also highlights a potential source of capital expenses and operating expenses savings for data center owners by switching from expensive built-in component-based controls to inexpensive, yet effective, system-based controls that can easily be imbedded into existing data center infrastructure systems management.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of chosen data center cooling system. Adapted from Ref. [23].

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Fig. 2

Virtual controls test bed used in this study

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Fig. 3

Psychrometric chart showing working methodology for both CRAC models

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Fig. 4

(a) VTAS controller architecture in steady-state mode and (b) VTAS controller architecture in transient mode

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Fig. 5

Flowchart for SCADA database creation

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Fig. 6

ON/OFF controller logic. “db” represents controller deadband.

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Fig. 7

Variation of external temperature and relative humidity for July 23rd in Dallas–Fort Worth

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Fig. 8

Comparison of time spent in each ASHRAE range for each control scheme

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Fig. 9

Comparison of average cooling system PUE for each control scheme

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Fig. 10

Panduit test bed for VTAS validation

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Fig. 11

Optimization of all three variables using regression and random sampling for external conditions of 20 °C and 40% relative humidity

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