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Research Papers

Orientation Effects in Two-Phase Microgap Flow

[+] Author and Article Information
Franklin L. Robinson

Thermal Engineering Branch
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center,
Greenbelt, MD 20771
e-mail: franklin.l.robinson@nasa.gov

Avram Bar-Cohen

Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742
e-mail: abc@umd.edu

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received January 22, 2019; final manuscript received April 7, 2019; published online May 17, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Ercan Dede. This work is in part a work of the U.S. Government. ASME disclaims all interest in the U.S. Government's contributions.

J. Electron. Packag 141(3), 031009 (May 17, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: EP-19-1009; doi: 10.1115/1.4043483 History: Received January 22, 2019; Revised April 07, 2019

The high power density of emerging electronic devices is driving the transition from remote cooling, which relies on conduction and spreading, to embedded cooling, which extracts dissipated heat on-site. Two-phase microgap coolers employ the forced flow of dielectric fluids undergoing phase change in a heated channel within or between devices. Such coolers must work reliably in all orientations for a variety of applications (e.g., vehicle-based equipment), as well as in microgravity and high-g for aerospace applications, but the lack of acceptable models and correlations for orientation- and gravity-independent operation has limited their use. Reliable criteria for achieving orientation- and gravity-independent flow boiling would enable emerging systems to exploit this thermal management technique and streamline the technology development process. As a first step toward understanding the effect of gravity in two-phase microgap flow and transport, in the present effort the authors have studied the effect of evaporator orientation, mass flux, and heat flux on flow boiling of HFE7100 in a 1.01 mm tall × 13.0 mm wide × 12.7 mm long microgap channel. Orientation-independence, defined as achieving similar critical heat fluxes (CHFs), heat transfer coefficients (HTCs), and flow regimes across orientations, was achieved for mass fluxes of 400 kg/m2 s and greater (corresponding to a Froude number of about 0.8). The present results are compared to published criteria for achieving orientation- and gravity-independence.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Flow loop schematic

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Fig. 2

(a) Evaporator top view with thermal isolator cap removed and (b) evaporator axial cross section (to scale)

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Fig. 3

Evaporator orientations (not to scale)

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Fig. 4

Flow boiling CHF as a function of mass flux and evaporator orientation

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Fig. 5

Single- and two-phase HTCs as a function of heat flux, evaporator orientation, and mass flux

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Fig. 7

Flow boiling of HFE7100 in a 1.01 mm × 13.0 mm channel at mass flux 100 kg/m2 s and heat flux 53.6 kW/m2 (see Fig. 3 for gravity vector orientations)

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Fig. 6

HTC ratio among orientations as a function of heat flux and mass flux

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Fig. 8

Flow boiling of HFE7100 in a 1.01 mm × 13.0 mm channel at mass flux 300 kg/m2 s and heat flux 171.3 kW/m2 (see Fig. 3 for gravity vector orientations)

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Fig. 9

Dominant force maps with boundaries from Refs. [31] and [32] with data from this study

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Fig. 11

System COP as a function of mass flux and evaporator orientation

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Fig. 10

Dominant force maps with boundaries from Refs. [31] and [32] with data from Ref. [13]

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