Research Papers

Interconnect Fatigue Failure Parameter Isolation for Power Device Reliability Prediction in Alternative Accelerated Mechanical Cycling Test

[+] Author and Article Information
Mahsa Montazeri, Cody J. Marbut

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Arkansas,
Fayetteville, AR 72701

David Huitink

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Arkansas,
Fayetteville, AR 72701
e-mail: dhuitin@uark.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received October 31, 2018; final manuscript received February 27, 2019; published online May 24, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Ercan Dede.

J. Electron. Packag 141(3), 031011 (May 24, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: EP-18-1099; doi: 10.1115/1.4043480 History: Received October 31, 2018; Revised February 27, 2019

In this work, a rapid and low-cost accelerated reliability test methodology which was designed to simulate mechanical stresses induced in flip–chip bonded devices during the thermal cycling reliability test under isothermal conditions, is introduced and demonstrated using power device analogous test chips. By stressing these devices in a controlled environment, mechanical stresses become decoupled from the design and temperature, such that useful lifetimes can be predictable. Mechanical shear stress was cyclically applied directly to device relevant, flip–chip solder interconnects while monitoring for failure. Herein, finite element analysis (FEA) is used to extract various damage metrics of different solder materials, including PbSn37/63, SAC305, and nanosilver, in both thermal operation and the introduced alternative mechanical testing conditions. Plastic work density and strain are calculated in the critical solder interconnects as factors that indicate the amount of the damage accumulation per cycle during the mechanical cycling, thermal cycling, and power cycling tests. The number of cycles to failure for each test was calculated using the fatigue life model developed by Darveaux for eutectic PbSn solder, while for SAC305 Syed's method was used, and for nanosilver, the Knoerr et al. equations are applied. The effects of environmental temperature and shearing force frequency were studied for the mechanical cycling reliability test, where a modified Norris–Landzberg equation for mechanical cycling tests was explored using the simulation results. Finally, comparing the mechanical cycling with the equivalent thermal cycling and power cycling demonstrated a significant reduction in required test duration to achieve a reliability estimation.

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Fig. 1

Schematic view of the silicon die with solder placements

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Fig. 2

(a) Mechanical cycling test setup and (b) boundary and load condition of half symmetry model for mechanical cycling simulation

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Fig. 3

Accumulated plastic work density per cycle in (a) PbSn and (b) SAC305 solder materials and (c) accumulated plastic strain per cycle for nanosilver during the mechanical cycling test as a function of the applied cyclic mechanical shear at various isothermal conditions

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Fig. 4

Effects of cycling frequency on damage accumulation at various loads at (a) 22 °C and (b) 85 °C temperature for SAC305

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Fig. 5

Estimation of Norris–Landzberg equation parameters: (a) n-parameter and (b) E/k parameter, for eutectic SnPb solder

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Fig. 6

Estimation of Norris–Landzberg equation parameters: (a) n-parameter and (b) E/k parameter, for SAC305 solder material

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Fig. 7

Estimation of Norris–Landzberg equation parameters: (a) n-parameter and (b) E/k parameter, for nanosilver solder

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Fig. 8

Relationship between accumulated plastic work (Sn63Pb37, SAC305) and plastic work amplitude (nanosilver) and maximum shear stress during various temperature cycle conditions

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Fig. 9

Plastic work accumulation in power cycling profile (condition on top) for various solders evaluated

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Fig. 10

Plastic work accumulation rate versus effective stress

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Fig. 11

Accumulated plastic work versus log CTF

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Fig. 12

SEM image of a Sn42/Bi47.6/Ag0.4 joint of a Si MOSFET. Multiple crack fronts are visible.

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Fig. 13

Load cell output for sample 7 showing force versus cycles with accumulation (plastic) region shown

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Fig. 14

Volumetric plastic work accumulation versus accumulation rate



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