Research Papers

Liquid-Cooled Aluminum Silicon Carbide Heat Sinks for Reliable Power Electronics Packages

[+] Author and Article Information
Darshan G. Pahinkar

Electronics Manufacturing and
Reliability Laboratory,
GWW School of Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
771 Ferst Drive Northwest,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: darshan@gatech.edu

Lauren Boteler, Dimeji Ibitayo

U. S. Army Research Laboratory,
Adelphi, MD 20783

Sreekant Narumanchi, Paul Paret, Douglas DeVoto, Joshua Major

National Renewable Energy Laboratory,
Golden, CO 80401

Samuel Graham

Electronics Manufacturing and
Reliability Laboratory,
GWW School of Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received April 22, 2018; final manuscript received April 1, 2019; published online May 8, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Baris Dogruoz.This work is in part a work of the U.S. Government. ASME disclaims all interest in the U.S. Government's contributions.The United States Government retains, and by accepting the article for publication, the publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains, a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

J. Electron. Packag 141(4), 041001 (May 08, 2019) (13 pages) Paper No: EP-18-1031; doi: 10.1115/1.4043406 History: Received April 22, 2018; Revised April 01, 2019

With recent advances in the state-of-the-art of power electronic devices, packaging has become one of the critical factors limiting the performance and durability of power electronics. To this end, this study investigates the feasibility of a novel integrated package assembly, which consists of copper circuit layer on an aluminum nitride (AlN) dielectric layer that is bonded to an aluminum silicon carbide (AlSiC) substrate. The entire assembly possesses a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch which aids in the thermal cycling reliability of the structure. The new assembly can serve as a replacement for the conventionally used direct bonded copper (DBC)—Cu base plate—Al heat sink assembly. While improvements in thermal cycling stability of more than a factor of 18 has been demonstrated, the use of AlSiC can result in increased thermal resistance when compared to thick copper heat spreaders. To address this issue, we demonstrate that the integration of single-phase liquid cooling in the AlSiC layer can result in improved thermal performance, matching that of copper heat spreading layers. This is aided by the use of heat transfer enhancement features built into the AlSiC layer. It is found that, for a given pumping power and through analytical optimization of geometries, microchannels, pin fins, and jets can be designed to yield a heat transfer coefficients (HTCs) of up to 65,000 W m−2 K−1, which can result in competitive device temperatures as Cu-baseplate designs, but with added reliability.

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Fig. 1

(a) Conventional power electronic package showing multiple material layers and interfaces and (b) improved design considered in the present work showing Cu–AlN–TLP bond—AlSiC stacking. Cooling features are embedded in the AlSiC heat sink.

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Fig. 2

Toyota Prius inverter geometry dissipating 2400 W

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Fig. 3

Boundary conditions applied on the exposed surfaces for the parametric study to determine the optimum thickness of AlSiC baseplate. This figure shows a pair of IGBT and a diode of the 12 pairs shown in Fig. 2.

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Fig. 4

Sample temperature contours with the TLP bond with 3 mm AlSiC heat sink with an HTC of 40 kW m−2 K−1

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Fig. 5

Variation of the difference between device temperature and fluid temperature (ΔTMax) with HTCs for different thicknesses

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Fig. 6

(a) Schematic showing an identical segment of a Toyota Prius inverter dissipating 400 W and (b) magnified view of the identical segment selected for simulations also showing minichannels

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Fig. 7

Schematic showing the geometry parameters and arrangement of layers considered for modeling channel flows

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Fig. 8

(a) HTC and (b) ΔP variation with aspect ratio and channel width

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Fig. 9

Schematic showing the geometry parameters and arrangement of layers considered for modeling flow over pin fins

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Fig. 10

(a) HTC and (b) ΔP variation with pin fin pitch and diameter

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Fig. 11

(a) Complete assembly of power package with pin fin assembly attached at the bottom of AlSiC plate and (b) pin fin assembly showing flow region. Flow cross-sectional area is smaller than the total area, because pin fins on the sides are not found to aid in heat spreading and are therefore not needed.

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Fig. 12

(a) Schematic of the complete geometry used for spray cooling and (b) jet array inlet manifold assembly

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Fig. 13

Schematic showing the geometry parameters and arrangement of layers considered for modeling jet impingement

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Fig. 14

(a) HTC and (b) ΔP variation with jet spacing S, D, andH

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Fig. 15

(a) Temperature, (b) velocity, and (c) pressure contours parallel to channel flow at the minichannel centroid

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Fig. 16

(a) Temperature, (b) velocity, and (c) pressure contours parallel to fluid flow at the pin fin centroid

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Fig. 17

(a) Temperature, (b) velocity, and (c) pressure contours parallel to fluid flow in spray cooling scenario (perpendicular to the heat source device)

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Fig. 18

Temperature contours for (a) channel cooling, (b) pin fin cooling, and (c) jet array cooling

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Fig. 19

(a) Variation of ΔTMax and ΔP with HTC for the best performing minichannel geometry −2 mm square cross section and (b) variation of ΔTMax and pumping power with HTC for the best performing minichannel geometry

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Fig. 20

Fabricated prototype showing minichannels carved into the AlSiC heat sink



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