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Research Papers

Correlation of Warpage Distribution With the Material Property Scattering for Warpage Range Prediction of PBGA Components

[+] Author and Article Information
Qiming Zhang

Department of Mechanical &
Aerospace Engineering,
The Hong Kong University of Science &
Technology,
Clear Water Bay,
Kowloon, Hong Kong

Jeffery C. C. Lo

Center for Advanced Microsystems Packaging,
The Hong Kong University of Science &
Technology,
Clear Water Bay,
Kowloon, Hong Kong

S. W. Ricky Lee

Department of Mechanical &
Aerospace Engineering,
The Hong Kong University of Science &
Technology,
Clear Water Bay,
Kowloon, Hong Kong
Center for Advanced Microsystems Packaging,
The Hong Kong University of
Science & Technology,
Clear Water Bay,
Kowloon, Hong Kong

Wei Xu

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.,
Bantian, Longgang District,
Shenzhen 518129, China
e-mail: rickylee@ust.hk

Section 3 of this paper has been reprinted with permission from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers © 2016, 15th IEEE iTherm Conference, Zhang, Q. et al., “Characterization of Orthotropic CTE of BT Substrate for PBGA Warpage Evaluation.”Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received July 31, 2017; final manuscript received August 2, 2018; published online September 10, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Jeffrey C. Suhling.

J. Electron. Packag 140(4), 041005 (Sep 10, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: EP-17-1072; doi: 10.1115/1.4041064 History: Received July 31, 2017; Revised August 02, 2018

In recent years, due to the increased size of ball grid array (BGA) devices, the assembly of BGAs on printed circuit boards through surface mount technology has encountered unprecedented challenges from thermal warpage. The excessive warpage of BGAs in the reflow process may cause manufacture problems and even the risk of failure. Thus, it is essential to acquire warpage values and corresponding distribution ranges of BGAs before the surface mount technology process. In order to avoid assembly failure, theoretically, it is necessary to guarantee that all BGA devices meet the acceptance requirement of relevant standards. Generally, a large number of samples should be measured to obtain a relatively reliable warpage data distribution in the reflow temperature range, which makes this test quite costly and extremely time consuming. This study proposes another method to estimate the BGA warpage value and its possible corresponding range from the material property point of view. Because the mechanism of BGA warpage is related to the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between the different materials, the warpage data scattering can be correlated with the scattering of material properties through finite element method (FEM) analysis. With a known mean value and range of material properties, the warpage value and corresponding distribution range can be solved. A sensitivity study is also presented in this paper. The accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated and the corresponding warpage data fluctuation range is estimated. From the comparison of the simulation and experiment results, determining the material properties could lead to a reasonable prediction of warpage in both the qualitative and quantitative sense. The proposed methodology for BGA warpage estimation can be used for academic research and industrial applications.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

17 × 17 mm PBGA sample (X-ray photo) for warpage evaluation and material characterization

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Fig. 2

Elastic moduli and CTEs of EMC: (a) elastic modulus of EMC (DMA test, 3 samples) and (b) CTE of EMC (TMA test, 3 samples)

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Fig. 3

BT elastic modulus driven fluctuation range of stiffness coefficient: (a) sample of BT laminate for DMA test and (b) elastic modulus of BT laminate (seven samples in one component)

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Fig. 4

Bimaterial beam assumption in the plane strain condition with a curvature

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Fig. 5

Geometry parameters to define the coordinates of three points in the bimaterial beam

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Fig. 6

Schematic demonstration of DMA setting

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Fig. 7

PBGA and bimaterial strip for DMA three point bending measurement: (a) 17 × 17 mm PBGA sample and cutting line and (b) bimaterial beam containing BT & EMC

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Fig. 8

DMA measurement demonstration and the definition of initial curvature at room temperature

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Fig. 9

Optical profiler scanned absolute thermal deflection data at room temperature: (a) scan operation of optical profiler and (b) surface profile data of bimaterial beam

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Fig. 10

DMA raw data and corrected data of maximum deflection as a function of temperature

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Fig. 11

Curvature of bimaterial beam

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Fig. 12

Derivative of curvature with respect of temperature

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Fig. 13

Difference of CTE between EMC and BT laminate

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Fig. 14

Conventional expression of CTE on thermal expansion curve of EMC

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Fig. 15

Instantaneous CTE expression on thermal expansion curve of EMC

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Fig. 16

Two methods of CTE expression: (a) multisegments expression of CTE and (b) direct smoothed instantaneous expression of CTE

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Fig. 17

CTE of BT laminate in planar direction

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Fig. 18

BT elastic modulus (Fig. 3) driven fluctuation range of stiffness coefficient

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Fig. 19

DMA measuring variation of curvature change per unit temperature (ten samples): (a) curvature of bimaterial beam and (b) curvature change per unit temperature of bimaterial beam

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Fig. 20

Range of ΔCTE and BT CTE: (a) range of ΔCTE and (b) range of BT CTE

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Fig. 21

Finite element model (1/4 model) of PBGA device

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Fig. 22

Vertical deformation on terminal side of PBGA model for warpage acquisition

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Fig. 23

Boundary of warpage data from sensitivity study and experimental measured warpage data

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Fig. 24

Correlation between warpage of bimaterial beam and corresponding CTE of EMC and BT laminate

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