Research Papers

Assessment of Elastic–Plastic and Electrical Properties of Printed Silver-Based Interconnects for Flexible Electronics

[+] Author and Article Information
Hsien-Chie Cheng

Department of Aerospace and Systems
Feng Chia University,
Taichung 407, Taiwan
e-mail: hccheng@fcu.edu.tw

Ruei-You Hong

Department of Power Mechanical Engineering,
National Tsing Hua University,
Hsinchu 300, Taiwan

Wen-Hwa Chen

Fellow ASME
Department of Power Mechanical Engineering,
National Tsing Hua University,
Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
e-mail: whchen@pme.nthu.edu.tw

1Corresponding authors.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received May 29, 2018; final manuscript received July 19, 2018; published online September 10, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Satish Chaparala.

J. Electron. Packag 140(4), 041007 (Sep 10, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: EP-18-1041; doi: 10.1115/1.4041014 History: Received May 29, 2018; Revised July 19, 2018

In this work, the elastic–plastic properties of the printed interconnects on a glass substrate with Ag-filled polymer-conductor ink are evaluated through a theoretical framework based on finite element (FE) modeling of instrumented sharp indentation, experimental indentation, the concept of the representative strain, and dimensional analysis. Besides, the influences of the ink-solvent content and temperature on the elastic–plastic and electrical properties of the printed Ag-based interconnects are also addressed. First of all, parametric FE indentation analyses are carried out over a wide range of elastic–plastic material parameters. These parametric results together with the concept of the representative strain are used via dimensional analysis to constitute a number of dimensionless functions, and further the forward/reverse algorithms. The forward algorithm is used for describing the indentation load–depth relationship and the reverse for predicting the elastic–plastic parameters of the printed Ag-based interconnects. The proposed algorithms are validated through the correct predictions of the plastic properties of three known metals. At last, their surface morphology, microstructure, and elemental composition are experimentally characterized. Results show that the elastic–plastic properties and electrical sheet resistance of the printed Ag-based interconnects increase with the ink-solvent content, mainly due to the increase of carbon element as a result of the increased ink-solvent residue, whereas their elastic–plastic properties and electrical performance decreases with the temperature.

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Fig. 1

An indentation load (S)–depth (l) relation of indentation

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Fig. 2

Stress–strain curve

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Fig. 3

The experimental and numerical instrumented sharp indentation: (a) indentation marks and (b) FE modeling of indentation

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Fig. 4

The relation between the ratio σr/P and σr/Er at different strain hardening exponents and plastic strains: (a) εr = 0.01, (b) εr = 0.05, and (c) εr = 0.29

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Fig. 5

The representations of U0/Erlm versus σ0.05/Er at n = 0 and 0.1: (a) n = 0 and (b) n = 0.1

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Fig. 6

The representations: (a) have/Er versus lr/lm and (b) U0/ErAm versus 1 − lr/lm

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Fig. 7

The forward/reverse methods: (a) forward method and (b) reverse method

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Fig. 8

The literature (experiment) and presently predicted indentation load-depth responses: (a) pure tin, (b) eutectic solder, and (c) Al6061-T6

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Fig. 9

The measured and presently predicted indentation load-depth responses for the three additional solvent contents at 25 °C: (a) 0%, (b) 5%, and (c) 10%

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Fig. 10

The stress–stain curves of the printed interconnects at 25 °C and 75 °C for the three additional solvent contents: (a) 25 °C and (b) 75 °C

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Fig. 11

Field emission scanning electron microscopy images of surface morphology of the printed Ag-based interconnects for the three additional solvent contents: (a) 0%, (b) 5%, and (c) 10%

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Fig. 12

Transmission electron microscopy images: (a) the printed interconnect (top) and the single grain (bottom) after sintering, (b) distribution of silver, and (c) distribution of carbon



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