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Research Papers

Accelerated Vibration Reliability Testing of Electronic Assemblies Using Sine Dwell With Resonance Tracking

[+] Author and Article Information
Quang T. Su

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Binghamton University,
State University of New York,
4400 Vestal Parkway East,
Binghamton, NY 13902-6000
e-mail: qsu@binghamton.edu

Mohammad A. Gharaibeh

Mechanical Engineering Department,
The Hashemite University,
Zarqa 13115, Jordan
e-mail: mohammada_fa@hu.edu.jo

Aaron J. Stewart

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Binghamton University,
State University of New York,
4400 Vestal Parkway East,
Binghamton, NY 13902-6000
e-mail: astewar5@binghamton.edu

James M. Pitarresi

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Binghamton University,
State University of New York,
4400 Vestal Parkway East,
Binghamton, NY 13902-6000
e-mail: jmp@binghamton.edu

Martin K. Anselm

Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering
Technology (MMET),
Center for Electronic Manufacturing and
Assembly (CEMA),
Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT),
One Lomb Memorial Drive,
Rochester, NY 14623-5603
e-mail: mkamet@rit.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received July 3, 2017; final manuscript received July 10, 2018; published online August 20, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Jeffrey C. Suhling.

J. Electron. Packag 140(4), 041004 (Aug 20, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: EP-17-1062; doi: 10.1115/1.4040923 History: Received July 03, 2017; Revised July 10, 2018

In this work, a sinusoidal vibration test method with resonance tracking is employed for reliability testing of circuit assemblies. The system continuously monitors for changes in the resonant frequency of the circuit board and adjusts the excitation frequency to match the resonant frequency. The test setup includes an electrodynamic shaker with a real-time vibration control, resistance monitoring for identifying electrical failures of interconnects, and vibration logging for monitoring changes in the dynamic response of the assembly over time. Reliability tests were performed using the resonance tracking sinusoidal test method for assemblies, each consisting of a centrally mounted ball grid array (BGA) device assembled with 63Sn37Pb and SAC105 solder alloys. These tests show that the resonance tracking method gives more consistent failure times. Failure analysis for the tested devices shows the primary failure mode is “input” trace crack first, followed by fatigue through the solder for complete failure. A finite element (FE) model, correlated with experimental modal analysis, is shown to accurately estimate the circuit board deflection estimated from the harmonic vibration data. This provides a means of estimating the stresses in the electronic interconnections while accounting for the variability between test parts. These fine-tuned vibration measurement techniques and related FE models provide the building blocks for high cycle solder fatigue plots (i.e., S–N curves).

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
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References

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Mattila, T. T. , Marjamäki, P. , and Kivilahti, J. K. , 2011, “Board-Level Reliability of Lead-Free Solder Interconnections Under Mechanical Shock and Vibration Loads,” Structural Dynamics of Micro- and Opto-Electronic Systems, E. Suhir , X. Yu , and D. Steinberg , eds., Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, pp. 371–414.
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Pitarresi, J. M. , Celetka, D. , Coldwel, R. , and Smith, D. , 1991, “The Smeared Properties Approach to FE Vibration Modeling of Printed Circuit Cards,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 113(3), pp. 250–257. [CrossRef]
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Gharaibeh, M. , 2018, “Finite Element Model Updating of Board-Level Electronic Packages by Factorial Analysis and Modal Measurements,” Microelectron. Int., 35(2), pp. 74–84.

Figures

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Fig. 1

Test vehicle description

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Fig. 8

Reliability results comparison of 63Sn37Pb and SAC105 solder alloys

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Fig. 7

Amplitude spectra for the PCB center deflection calculated from data in Fig. 6

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Fig. 4

Failure detection loops

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Fig. 3

Vibration control system schematic

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Fig. 2

Layout of the corner joint. The horizontal line between corner joint and the adjacent joint (right) shows how the component connects the corner ball to the ground.

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Fig. 9

(a) Typical failure schematic and (b) cross section image showing the observed failure modes

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Fig. 10

Finite element model of the assembly

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Fig. 6

Vibration log showing a resonance tracked vibration test. Note the phase drift, which is restored when the driving frequency is adjusted.

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Fig. 5

(a) Test assembly with event detection leads soldered to resistance monitoring terminals and (b) assembly mounted to the electrodynamic shaker base

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Fig. 11

Modal analysis experiment

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Fig. 12

Tested boundary conditions. (a) “free-edge” approximated by hanging from fishing line and (b) “fixed” by mounting onto fixture with standoffs.

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Fig. 14

Solder joint mesh used in (a) global model and (b) local model

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Fig. 13

(a) Location of the solder joint of maximum von Mises nodal stress, i.e., most critical solder from the global model and (b) contour plot of most critical solder von Mises nodal stresses from the local model

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Fig. 15

Volume averaging location at the top and the bottom of the solder joint

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Fig. 16

Mesh density results in the solder joint local model

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Fig. 17

(a) Printed circuit board center deflection versus 1/dampingratio and (b) solder volume averaged von Mises stress versus 1/damping ratio at different system first natural frequencies

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Fig. 18

Solder volume averaged von Mises stress/PCB center deflection versus 1/damping ratio at different natural frequencies

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Fig. 19

Solder volume averaged von Mises stress/PCB center deflection versus first natural frequency squared

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Fig. 20

(a) Cross section image showing crack initiation and propagation along with (b) FEA predictions of maximum principal stress vector

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