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Research Papers

Effect of Long-Term Room Temperature Aging on the Fatigue Properties of SnAgCu Solder Joint

[+] Author and Article Information
Sinan Su

Department of Industrial and
Systems Engineering,
Auburn University,
3301 Shelby Center,
Auburn, AL 36849

Nianjun Fu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Auburn University,
Auburn, AL 36849

Francy John Akkara

Department of Industrial and
Systems Engineering,
Auburn University,
3301 Shelby Center,
Auburn, AL 36849

Sa'd Hamasha

Department of Industrial and Systems
Engineering,
Auburn University,
3301 Shelby Center,
Auburn, AL 36849
e-mail: smh0083@auburn.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received October 12, 2017; final manuscript received April 27, 2018; published online May 21, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Toru Ikeda.

J. Electron. Packag 140(3), 031005 (May 21, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: EP-17-1107; doi: 10.1115/1.4040105 History: Received October 12, 2017; Revised April 27, 2018

Solder joints in electronic assemblies are subjected to mechanical and thermal cycling. These cyclic loadings lead to the fatigue failure of solder joints involving damage accumulation, crack initiation, crack propagation, and failure. Aging leads to significant changes on the microstructure and mechanical behavior of solder joints. While the effect of thermal aging on solder behavior has been examined, no prior studies have focused on the effect of long-term room temperature aging (25 °C) on the solder failure and fatigue behavior. In this paper, the effects of long-term room temperature aging on the fatigue behavior of five common lead-free solder alloys, i.e., SAC305, SAC105, SAC-Ni, SAC-X-Plus, and Innolot, have been investigated. Several individual lead-free solder joints on printed circuited boards with two aging conditions (no aging and 4 years of aging) have been prepared and subjected to shear cyclic stress–strain loadings until the complete failure. Fatigue life was recorded for each solder alloy. From the stress–strain hysteresis loop, inelastic work and plastic strain ranges were measured and empirically modeled with the fatigue life. The results indicated that 4 years of room temperature aging significantly decreases the fatigue life of the solder joints. Also, inelastic work per cycle and plastic strain range are increased after 4 years of room temperature aging. The fatigue life degradation for the solder alloys with doped elements (Ni, Bi, Sb) was relatively less compared to the traditional SAC105 and SAC305.

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Figures

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Fig. 11

Characteristic life degradation for SAC-X-Plus solder joints after aging

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Fig. 12

Characteristic fatigue life versus stress amplitude (log–log scale) under two aging conditions for Innolot solder alloy

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Fig. 13

Characteristic life degradation Innolot solder joints after aging

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Fig. 10

Characteristic fatigue life versus stress amplitude (log–log scale) under two aging conditions for SAC-X-Plus solder alloy

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Fig. 9

Characteristic life degradation for SAC-Ni solder joints after aging

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Fig. 8

Characteristic fatigue life versus stress amplitude (log–log scale) under two aging conditions for SAC-Ni solder alloy

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Fig. 7

(a) Characteristic life degradation for SAC105 solder joints after aging and (b) B10 life degradation for SAC105 solder joints after aging

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Fig. 6

(a) Characteristic fatigue life versus stress amplitude (log–log scale) under two aging conditions for SAC105 solder alloy and (b) B10 fatigue life versus stress amplitude (log–log scale) under two aging conditions for SAC105 solder alloy

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Fig. 5

(a) Characteristic life degradation for SAC305 solder joints after aging and (b) B10 life degradation for SAC305 solder joints after aging

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Fig. 4

(a) Characteristic fatigue life versus stress amplitude (log–log scale) under 2 aging conditions for SAC305 solder alloy and (b) B10 fatigue life versus stress amplitude (log–log scale) under two aging conditions for SAC305 solder alloy

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Fig. 3

(a) Weibull plots of the fatigue life of SAC305 solder joints at different stress amplitudes under no-aging condition and (b) Weibull plots of the fatigue life of SAC305 solder joints at different stress amplitudes after 4 years of room temperature aging

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Fig. 2

Schematic view of the shear fatigue fixture tip with a solder sphere

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Fig. 1

Instron micromechanical testing system and the fixture design

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Fig. 14

Characteristic life as a function of stress amplitudes under no-aging conditions

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Fig. 15

Characteristic life as a function of stress amplitudes after 4 years of room temperature aging

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Fig. 16

Hysteresis loop for a SAC305 solder joint cycled at 24 MPa

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Fig. 17

Inelastic work per cycle versus the number of cycles for a SAC305 solder joint cycled at 24 MPa

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Fig. 18

Inelastic work per cycle versus the number of cycles for SAC305 solder joints at different stress amplitudes

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Fig. 19

Hysteresis loops for SAC305 solder joints in the steady-state region for different stress amplitudes

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Fig. 20

(a) Comparison of hysteresis loops for SAC305 solder joints cycled at 20 MPa before and after aging and (b) comparison of hysteresis loops for Innolot solder joints cycled at 36 MPa before and after aging

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Fig. 21

Characteristic fatigue life versus inelastic work per cycle for SAC305 solder joints with two aging conditions

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Fig. 22

Characteristic fatigue life versus inelastic work per cycle for SAC105 solder joints with two aging conditions

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Fig. 23

Characteristic fatigue life versus inelastic work per cycle for SAC-Ni solder joints with two aging conditions

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Fig. 24

Characteristic fatigue life versus inelastic work per cycle for SAC-X-Plus solder joints with two aging conditions

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Fig. 25

Characteristic fatigue life versus inelastic work per cycle for MaxRel (Innolot) solder joints with two aging conditions

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Fig. 26

Characteristic fatigue life versus plastic strain for SAC305 solder joints with two aging conditions

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