Enhanced Heat Transfer Using Microporous Copper Inverse Opals

[+] Author and Article Information
Hyoungsoon Lee

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Chung-Ang University,
84, Heukseok-ro,
Dongjak-gu 06974, Seoul, South Korea
e-mail: leeh@cau.ac.kr

Tanmoy Maitra

Mechanical Engineering,
University College London,
Gower St. Bloomsbury,
London WC1E 6BT, UK
e-mail: t.maitra@ucl.ac.uk

James Palko

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of California, Merced,
5200 N. Lake Rd,
Merced, CA 95343
e-mail: jpalko@ucmerced.edu

Daeyoung Kong

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Chung-Ang University,
84, Heukseok-ro,
Dongjak-gu 06974, Seoul, South Korea
e-mail: kongdy000@cau.ac.kr

Chi Zhang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Stanford University,
440 Escondido Mall,
Stanford, CA 94305
e-mail: chzhang@stanford.edu

Michael T. Barako

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Stanford University,
440 Escondido Mall,
Stanford, CA 94305
e-mail: mbarako@stanford.edu

Yoonjin Won

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
University of California, Irvine,
4200 Engineering Gateway,
Irvine, CA 92697
e-mail: won@uci.edu

Mehdi Asheghi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Stanford University,
440 Escondido Mall,
Stanford, CA 94305
e-mail: masheghi@stanford.edu

Kenneth E. Goodson

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Stanford University,
440 Escondido Mall,
Stanford, CA 94305
e-mail: goodson@stanford.edu

1Corresponding author.

2The authors contributed equally to the paper.

3Present address: NG Next, Northrop Grumman Corporation, 1 Space Park, Redondo Beach, CA 90278.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received January 9, 2018; final manuscript received April 12, 2018; published online May 9, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Kaushik Mysore.

J. Electron. Packag 140(2), 020906 (May 09, 2018) (6 pages) Paper No: EP-18-1003; doi: 10.1115/1.4040088 History: Received January 09, 2018; Revised April 12, 2018

Enhanced boiling is one of the popular cooling schemes in thermal management due to its superior heat transfer characteristics. This study demonstrates the ability of copper inverse opal (CIO) porous structures to enhance pool boiling performance using a thin CIO film with a thickness of ∼10 μm and pore diameter of 5 μm. The microfabricated CIO film increases microscale surface roughness that in turn leads to more active nucleation sites thus improved boiling performance parameters such as heat transfer coefficient (HTC) and critical heat flux (CHF) compared to those of smooth Si surfaces. The experimental results for CIO film show a maximum CHF of 225 W/cm2 (at 16.2 °C superheat) or about three times higher than that of smooth Si surface (80 W/cm2 at 21.6 °C superheat). Optical images showing bubble formation on the microporous copper surface are captured to provide detailed information of bubble departure diameter and frequency.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
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Fig. 1

Microporous copper fabrication process: (a) drop casting PS spheres on Au layer, (b) heating at 50 °C to evaporate water (solvent), (c) heating at 103 °C for one hour to sinter PS spheres, (d) electrodeposition of copper, and (e) dissolution of PS spheres in THF

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Fig. 2

Scanning electron microscopy graphs of microporous copper structures after dissolution of template (step (e) in Fig.1): (a) top view, (b) cross-sectional view, and (c) pores and necks. CIO sample is fabricated using 5 μm sacrificial spheres.

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Fig. 3

Experimental apparatus (a) pool boiling apparatus, (b) thin film gold resistive mesh heater, and (c) cross-sectional view of test section (not scaled to size)

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Fig. 4

Comparisons of boiling curves for the microporous copper structure with a pore diameter of 5 μm and plain Si surface [6]

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Fig. 5

Heat transfer coefficient versus normalized heat flux for the microporous copper structure with a pore diameter of 5 μm and plain Si surface

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Fig. 6

Flow visualization of pool boiling on the microporous CIO structure with pore diameters of 5 μm at heat fluxes of (a) 18% (40 W/cm2), (b) 53% (120 W/cm2), and (c) 80% (180 W/cm2) of CHF



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