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Research Papers

Fabrication of Multimeasurand Sensor for Monitoring of a Li-Ion Battery

[+] Author and Article Information
Aaron Knobloch

Fellow ASME
General Electric Global Research,
KWB322,
One Research Circle,
Niskayuna, NY 12309
e-mail: knobloch@research.ge.com

Chris Kapusta

General Electric Global Research,
One Research Circle,
Niskayuna, NY 12309
e-mail: kapusta@ge.com

Jason Karp

General Electric Global Research,
One Research Circle,
Niskayuna, NY 12309
e-mail: karp@ge.com

Yuri Plotnikov

General Electric Global Research,
One Research Circle,
Niskayuna, NY 12309
e-mail: plotnikov@ge.com

Jason B. Siegel

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
1231 Beal Avenue,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: siegeljb@umich.edu

Anna G. Stefanopoulou

Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
1231 Beal Avenue,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: annastef@umich.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received June 7, 2017; final manuscript received March 27, 2018; published online May 11, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Kaustubh Nagarkar.

J. Electron. Packag 140(3), 031002 (May 11, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: EP-17-1053; doi: 10.1115/1.4039861 History: Received June 07, 2017; Revised March 27, 2018

This paper details the fabrication and testing of a combined temperature and expansion sensor to improve state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) estimation for Li-ion batteries. These sensors enable the characterization of periodic stress and strain changes in the electrode materials of Lithium-ion batteries during the charge and discharge process. These ultrathin sensors are built on a polyimide substrate which can enable direct integration between cells without compromising safety or cell cooling design. Leveraging the sensor design and fabrication process used to create inductive coil eddy current (EC) sensors for crack detection, these sensors were characterized on three Panasonic 5 A-h cells showing the capability to measure expansion of Li-ion batteries. By sensing the intercalation effects, which cause cell expansion, improvements in estimation of SOH and SOC can be enabled through the use of physics-based battery models, which combine the thermal, mechanical, and electrochemical aspects of its operation.

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References

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Mohan, S. , Kim, Y. , Siegel, J. B. , Samad, N. A. , and Stefanopoulou, A. G. , 2014, “ A Phenomenological Model of Bulk Force in a Li-Ion Battery Pack and Its Application to State of Charge Estimation,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 161(14), pp. A2222–A2231. [CrossRef]
Samad, N. A. , Kim, Y. , Siegel, J. B. , and Stefanopoulou, A. G. , 2016, “ Battery Capacity Fading Estimation Using a Force-Based Incremental Capacity Analysis,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 163(8), pp. A1584–A1594. [CrossRef]
Samad, N. A. , Wang, B. , Siegel, J. B. , and Stefanopoulou, A. G. , 2017, “ Parameterization of Battery Electro-Thermal Models Coupled With Finite Element Flow Models for Cooling,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas. Control, 139(7), p. 071003. [CrossRef]
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Karp, J. , Knobloch, A. , Siegel, J. , Kapusta, C. , Plotnikov, Y. , and Stefanopoulou, A. , “ Eddy Current Sensing for Expansion Measurement of Lithium-Ion Batteries,” (in preparation).
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Lower right: In the Ford Fusion 2014 Model Year hybrid electric vehicle pack, 76 5 A-h cells are configured into two strings with active air cooling. Top: An example of a single string where air flows between the cells. Lower left: A two-cell portion of the pack showing the plastic spacers, which allow air flow between the cells for cooling.

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Fig. 2

Three different Pt RTD designs were considered for the sensor platform. Images above show test structures of Pt on Kapton that were tested for temperature sensitivity and performance.

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Fig. 3

Image of the eddy current expansion sensor utilizing a flat coil design implemented with Cu traces on a Kapton film

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Fig. 4

Fabrication process flow for the sensor platform

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Fig. 5

An example of the fabricated sensor with the associated electronics. Each sensor is composed of three Platinum RTDs and one eddy current expansion sensor. The electronics primary function is to drive and read the eddy current sensor as well as send the sensor output to the data acquisition system.

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Fig. 6

The sensor was positioned on the 5 A-h cell and attached directly to the surface using a silver epoxy underneath the temperature and eddy current elements (scale bar indicates 1 cm)

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Fig. 7

A rail (shown in black) was designed to hold the electronics needed for the sensors. The boards were oriented to allow flow through to the cells.

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Fig. 8

A fully assembled pack with sensors and electronics highlighting the large number of wires required for operation (four wires per sensing element)

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Fig. 9

A three-cell test rig, which replicates the pack conditions, was used to understand and quantify sensor performance

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Fig. 10

Test data showing the temperature, expansion, and force in a three-cell test rig replicating pack conditions during charge and discharge

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