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Research Papers

Embedded Two-Phase Cooling of High Flux Electronics Via Press-Fit and Bonded FEEDS Coolers

[+] Author and Article Information
Raphael K. Mandel

Smart and Small Thermal Systems Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742
e-mail: rmandel@umd.edu

Daniel G. Bae

Smart and Small Thermal Systems Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742
e-mail: bgp723@umd.edu

Michael M. Ohadi

Professor
Smart and Small Thermal Systems Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Center for Environmental Energy Engineering
(CEEE),
University of Maryland,
4164C Glenn L. Martin Hall,
College Park, MD 20742
e-mail: ohadi@umd.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received September 14, 2017; final manuscript received January 31, 2018; published online May 11, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Baris Dogruoz.

J. Electron. Packag 140(3), 031003 (May 11, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: EP-17-1081; doi: 10.1115/1.4039264 History: Received September 14, 2017; Revised January 31, 2018

The increasing heat densities in electronic components and focus on energy efficiency have motivated utilization of embedded two-phase cooling, which reduces system-level thermal resistance and pumping power. To achieve maximum benefit, high heat fluxes and vapor qualities should be achieved simultaneously. While many researchers have achieved heat fluxes in excess of 1 kW/cm2, vapor qualities are often below 10%, requiring a significantly large amount of energy spent on subcooling or pumping power, which minimizes the benefit of using two-phase thermal transport. In this work, we describe our recent work with cooling devices utilizing film evaporation with an enhanced fluid delivery system (FEEDS). The design, calibration, and experimental testing of a press-fit and bonded FEEDS test section are detailed here. Heat transfer and pressure drop performance was characterized and discussed. With the press-fit Si test chip, heat fluxes in excess of 1 kW/cm2 were obtained at vapor qualities approaching 45% and a coefficient of performance (COP) approaching 1400. With the bonded SiC test chip, heat fluxes in excess of 1 kW/cm2 were achieved at a vapor quality of 85% and heat densities approaching 490 W/cm3.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Conventional cooling paradigm versus (b) embedded cooling paradigm

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Fig. 2

(a) Two-phase manifold-microchannel flow configuration and (b) geometric definitions of manifold-microchannel unit cell

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Fig. 3

Film evaporation with an enhanced fluid delivery system experimental designs for (a) press-fit test section and (b) bonded test section

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Fig. 4

(a) Press-fit test section internal flow path and (b) press-fit manifold

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Fig. 5

(a) Bonded FEEDS header manifold, (b) thin-film platinum RTD heater, and (c) DRIE embedded heat sink

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Fig. 7

Voltage divider circuit

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Fig. 8

Calibration curves for (a) chip 1 (Si) and (b) chip 2 (SiC)

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Fig. 9

Base heat flux versus RTD superheat for (a) chip 1 and (b) chip 2

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Fig. 10

Wall heat transfer coefficient versus outlet vapor quality for (a) chip 1 and (b) chip 2

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Fig. 11

Pressure drop versus vapor quality for (a) chip 1 and (b) chip 2

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