Peel-and-Stick Sensors Powered by Directed Radio-Frequency Energy

[+] Author and Article Information
David Eric Schwartz

3333 Coyote Hill Road,
Palo Alto, CA 94304
e-mail: David.Schwartz@parc.com

Clinton J. Smith

3333 Coyote Hill Road,
Palo Alto, CA 94304
e-mail: Clinton.Smith@parc.com

Joseph Lee

3333 Coyote Hill Road,
Palo Alto, CA 94304
e-mail: Joseph.Lee@parc.com

Shakthi Priya Gowri

3333 Coyote Hill Road,
Palo Alto, CA 94304
e-mail: Shakthi.Gowri@parc.com

George Daniel

3333 Coyote Hill Road,
Palo Alto, CA 94304
e-mail: george.daniel@metawave.co

Christopher Lalau-Keraly

3333 Coyote Hill Road,
Palo Alto, CA 94304
e-mail: chriskeraly@gmail.com

Quentin Baudenon

École Polytechnique,
Université Paris-Saclay Route de Saclay,
PALAISEAU Cedex 91128, France
e-mail: quentin.baudenon@polytechnique.edu

J. R. M. Saavedra

ICFO—Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques,
The Barcelona Institute of Science
and Technology,
Castelldefels, Barcelona 08860, Spain
e-mail: jose.martinez@icfo.eu

1Corresponding author.

2Former employee of PARC.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received October 12, 2017; final manuscript received December 22, 2017; published online May 9, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Kaushik Mysore.

J. Electron. Packag 140(2), 020904 (May 09, 2018) (5 pages) Paper No: EP-17-1108; doi: 10.1115/1.4039138 History: Received October 12, 2017; Revised December 22, 2017

PARC, a Xerox Company, is developing a low-cost system of peel-and-stick wireless sensors that will enable widespread building environmental sensor deployment with the potential to deliver up to 30% energy savings. The system is embodied by a set of radio-frequency (RF) hubs that provide power to automatically located sensor nodes and relay data wirelessly to the building management system (BMS). The sensor nodes are flexible electronic labels powered by rectified RF energy transmitted by the RF hub and can contain multiple printed and conventional sensors. The system design overcomes limitations in wireless sensors related to power delivery, lifetime, and cost by eliminating batteries and photovoltaic devices. Sensor localization is performed automatically by the inclusion of a programmable multidirectional antenna array in the RF hub. Comparison of signal strengths as the RF beam is swept allows for sensor localization, reducing installation effort and enabling automatic recommissioning of sensors that have been relocated. PARC has already demonstrated wireless power and temperature data transmission up to a distance of 20 m with 71 s between measurements, using power levels well within the Federal Communications Commission regulation limits in the 902–928 MHz industrial, medical and scientific (ISM) band. The sensor's RF energy harvesting antenna achieves high performance with dimensions of 5 cm × 9.5 cm.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Topics: Sensors
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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Sensor system overview

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Block diagram of sensor tag

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Sensor tag antennas

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Voltage on the storage capacitor and at the output of the rectifier circuit as the sensor label is charged. RF power is turned on at 5 s. At 30 s, the energy harvesting IC exits cold-start mode and activates its high-efficiency internal boost converter. At 100 s, power is connected to the MCU. At 105 s, temperature and humidity data are transmitted to the hub.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) Roll-to-roll printed antennas and (b) FHE circuit printed at PARC




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