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Research Papers

Solid-State Microjoining Mechanisms of Wire Bonding and Flip Chip Bonding

[+] Author and Article Information
Yasuo Takahashi

Joining and Welding Research Institute,
Osaka University,
Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047, Japan

Hiroki Fukuda, Yasuhiro Yoneshima, Hideki Kitamura

Graduate School of Engineering,
Osaka University,
Yamada-oka, Suita,
Osaka 565-0871, Japan

Masakatsu Maeda

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Nihon University,
1-2-1 Narashino,
Chiba 275-8575, Japan

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received March 9, 2017; final manuscript received September 21, 2017; published online October 25, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Kaushik Mysore.

J. Electron. Packag 139(4), 041010 (Oct 25, 2017) (13 pages) Paper No: EP-17-1026; doi: 10.1115/1.4038143 History: Received March 09, 2017; Revised September 21, 2017

Low-temperature microjoining, such as wire (or ribbon) bonding, tape automated bonding (TAB), and flip chip bonding (FCB), is necessary for electronics packaging. Each type of microjoining takes on various aspects but has common bonding mechanisms regarding friction slip, plastic deformation, and friction heating. In the present paper, solid-state microjoining mechanisms in Au wire (ball) bonding, FCB, Al wire bonding (WB), and Al ribbon bonding are discussed to systematically understand the common bonding mechanisms. Ultrasonic vibration enhances friction slip and plastic deformation, making it possible to rapidly obtain dry interconnects. Metallic adhesion at the central area of the bonding interface is mainly produced by the friction slip. On the other hand, the folding of the lateral side surfaces of the Au bump, Au ball, and Al wire is very important for increasing the bonded area. The central and peripheral adhesions are achieved by a slip-and-fold mechanism. The solid-state microjoining mechanisms of WB and FCB are discussed based on experimental results.

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Takashima, K. , Misawa, K. , Ando, M. , Takahashi, Y. , and Maeda, M. , 2015, “ Sliding Behavior at The Bonding Interface during Ultrasonic Al Ribbon Bonding,” 21st Symposium on Microjoining and Assembly Technology in Electronics (MATE), Yokohama, Japan, Feb. 3–4, pp. 439–440.

Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the flow of FCB: (a) bump formation, (b) flipping the Si chip, (c) connection (bonding), and (d) sealing

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Fig. 2

Appearance of Au bump used in the present study

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Fig. 3

Schematic illustrations of FCB implemented in the present study: (a) cross-sectional view and (b) bonding conditions (sequence)

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Fig. 4

Schematic illustration of small bump and electric pads (cross sections): (a) before bonding and (b) after bonding

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Fig. 5

Scanning electron microscope photos of the bonded top surfaces of Au bumps after etching the Al pads. The stage temperature, Tstage, was 423 K and the ramp load was applied to the bumps for 50 ms before bonding. The increasing rate of the ramp load was 0.02 N/ms per bump. The maximum ramp load was 1.0 N/bump. Circles are drawn with white dotted lines. They express the diameter (∼60 μm) of the initial bonding surface (upper side of the bump). The blackish brown area is an alloy reaction phase: (a) High load and high ultrasonic power conditions (F = 1.0 N/bump, WUS = 300 m W, t = 150 ms). (b) Low load and low ultrasonic power conditions (F = 0.43 N/bump, WUS = 50 mW, t = 100 ms).

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Fig. 6

Initial shapes (side views) of the Au balls deformed before ultrasonic vibration at Tstage = 353 K: (a) ramp load of 19.0 N/s for 50 ms, H = 41.9 μm, X = 72.3 μm, and (b) ramp load of 8.33 N/s for 30 ms, H = 60.6 μm, X = 37.3 μm

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Fig. 7

Au ball surfaces after bonding. Time, t, is the period when the ultrasonic vibration was applied. Ho is the free-air ball diameter (initial height of Au ball; 80 μm) and ΔH is the reduction of the mashed Au ball. Tstage = 353 K, FWB = 0.95 N, f = 60 kHz, WUS =20 mW: (a) t = +0 ms, (b) t = 40 ms, (c) t = 60 ms, and (d) t = 300 ms.

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Fig. 8

Au ball surfaces after bonding. Tstage = 353 K, FWB = 0.25 N, f = 60 kHz, WUS = 80 mW: (a) t = +0 ms, (b) t = 30 ms, (c) t = 60 ms, and (d) t = 150 ms.

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Fig. 9

Appearance of an Au ball mashed by TCB without ultrasonic vibration. The bonding condition was Tstage = 523 K, FWB = 0.95 N, and t = 200 ms. The Al pad was removed by etching: (a) Au ball surface and (b) side view of the mashed Au ball. The white-gray dimple shows the alloy reaction area.

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Fig. 10

Schematic illustration of the growth process of alloy reaction islands during thermosonic bonding of an Au ball

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Fig. 11

Schematic illustration of in situ observation of change in bond interface with time: (a) Al WB and (b) Al ribbon bonding

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Fig. 12

Experimental results of the in situ observation during Al WB. Al wire was bonded to a transparent SiO2 plate under the bonding conditions of FWB = 3.0 N and WUS = 1.0 W. The diameter of the Al wire was 300 μm: (a) before bonding (unloaded), (b) when only the initial force was applied, (c) t = 50 ms, and (d) when the bonding force was still applied after ultrasonic vibration was stopped.

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Fig. 13

Schematic illustrations of the change in shape of the contact area during the UB of the Al thick wire to clarify how intimate contact area increases: (a) when bonding load is just applied, (b) the contact area increases by application of ultrasonic vibration, and (c) the contact area increases more by a slip-and-fold mechanism

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Fig. 14

Experimental results of the in situ observation during Al ribbon bonding. An Al ribbon was bonded to a transparent SiO2 plate under the bonding conditions of FRB = 7.0 N and WUS = 4.0 W. The thickness and width of the Al ribbon were 300 μm and 1 mm, respectively: (a) initial position was setup before bonding (unloaded), (b) when only the bonding force was applied, (c) the ultrasonic vibration was applied for t = 1 ms and (d) 10 ms, (e) 16 ms, (f) 50 ms, (g) 100 ms, (h) when the bonding force was still applied after the cessation of ultrasonic vibration, and (i) after the bonding force was removed.

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Fig. 15

Schematic illustrations of the change in shape of the contact area during the UB of the Al ribbon to clarify the intimate contact area change: (a) the initial stage of bonding immediately after the ultrasonic vibration was applied, (b) the contact area increased by the application of ultrasonic vibration, the central area became dark gray (gray area B) and gray area A increased along the longitudinal direction of the ribbon, (c) gray area B widened but gray area A did not, and (d) gray area B still widened becoming gray area C, and the central area bond became strong by a slip-and-fold mechanism

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Fig. 16

Schematic illustrations explaining the difference in the bond area growth processes between Al wire and Al ribbon bonding: (a) Al ribbon bonding and (b) Al WB

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