Enhanced Bonding by Applied Current in Cu-to-Cu Joints Fabricated Using 20 µm Cu Microbumps

[+] Author and Article Information
Sung Woo Ma

Division of Nanoscale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea

Chanho Shin

SK Hynix Inc., San 136-1 Ami-ri Bubal-eub Icheon-si Kyoungki-do, 467-701, Korea

Young-Ho Kim

Division of Nanoscale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea; Division of Advanced Materials and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4037474 History: Received April 25, 2017; Revised July 26, 2017


The effect of applied current in enhancing bonding was studied in Cu-to-Cu direct bonding using Cu microbumps. A daisy-chain structure of electroplated Cu microbumps (20 µm × 20 µm) was fabricated on Si wafer. Cu-to-Cu bonding was performed in ambient atmosphere at 200-300 °C for 10 min under 260 MPa, during which direct current of 0-10 A (2.5 x 10^6 A/cm^2) was applied. With increasing applied current, the contact resistance decreased and the shear strength in the Cu-to-Cu joints increased. The enhanced bonding imparted by the application of current was ascribed to Joule heating and electromigration effects. Subsequently, the joint temperature was calibrated to isolate the electromigration effects for study. In Cu-to-Cu joints joined at the same adjusted temperature, increasing the current caused unbonded regions to decrease and regions of cohesive failure to increase. The enhanced diffusion across the Cu/Cu interfaces under the applied current was the main mechanism whereby the quality of the Cu-to-Cu joints was improved.

Copyright (c) 2017 by ASME
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