0
Research Papers

Flow Boiling Heat Transfer and Pressure Drops of R1234ze(E) in a Silicon Micro-pin Fin Evaporator

[+] Author and Article Information
C. Falsetti

Laboratory of Heat and Mass Transfer (LTCM),
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de
Lausanne (EPFL),
Station 9,
Lausanne CH-1015, Switzerland
e-mail: chiara.falsetti@epfl.ch

M. Magnini

Laboratory of Heat and Mass Transfer (LTCM),
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de
Lausanne (EPFL),
Station 9,
Lausanne CH-1015, Switzerland
e-mail: mirco.magnini@epfl.ch

J. R. Thome

Laboratory of Heat and Mass Transfer (LTCM),
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de
Lausanne (EPFL),
Station 9,
Lausanne CH-1015, Switzerland
e-mail: john.thome@epfl.ch

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received February 27, 2017; final manuscript received June 21, 2017; published online July 10, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Mehdi Asheghi.

J. Electron. Packag 139(3), 031008 (Jul 10, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: EP-17-1023; doi: 10.1115/1.4037152 History: Received February 27, 2017; Revised June 21, 2017

The development of newer and more efficient cooling techniques to sustain the increasing power density of high-performance computing systems is becoming one of the major challenges in the development of microelectronics. In this framework, two-phase cooling is a promising solution for dissipating the greater amount of generated heat. In the present study, an experimental investigation of two-phase flow boiling in a micro-pin fin evaporator is performed. The micro-evaporator has a heated area of 1 cm2 containing 66 rows of cylindrical in-line micro-pin fins with diameter, height, and pitch of, respectively, 50 μm, 100 μm, and 91.7 μm. The working fluid is R1234ze(E) tested over a wide range of conditions: mass fluxes varying from 750 kg/m2 s to 1750 kg/m2 s and heat fluxes ranging from 20 W/cm2 to 44 W/cm2. The effects of saturation temperature on the heat transfer are investigated by testing three different outlet saturation temperatures: 25 °C, 30 °C, and 35 °C. In order to assess the thermal–hydraulic performance of the current heat sink, the total pressure drops are directly measured, while local values of heat transfer coefficient are evaluated by coupling high-speed flow visualization with infrared temperature measurements. According to the experimental results, the mass flux has the most significant impact on the heat transfer coefficient while heat flux is a less influential parameter. The vapor quality varies in a range between 0 and 0.45. The heat transfer coefficient in the subcooled region reaches a maximum value of about 12 kW/m2 K, whilst in two-phase flow it goes up to 30 kW/m2 K.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Madhour, Y. , Zervas, M. , Schlottig, G. , Brunschwiler, T. , Leblebici, Y. , Thome, J. R. , and Michel, B. , 2013, “ Integration of Intra Chip Stack Fluidic Cooling Using Thin-Layer Solder Bonding,” IEEE International 3D Systems Integration Conference (3DIC), San Francisco, CA, Oct. 2–4.
Brunschwiler, T. , Sridhar, A. , Ong, C. L. , and Schlottig, G. , 2016, “ Benchmarking Study on the Thermal Management Landscape for Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits: From Back-Side to Volumetric Heat Removal,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 138(1), p. 010911. [CrossRef]
Kosar, A. , Mishra, C. , and Peles, Y. , 2005, “ Laminar Flow Across a Bank of Low Aspect Ratio Micro Pin Fins,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 127(3), pp. 419–430. [CrossRef]
Kosar, A. , and Peles, Y. , 2006, “ Convective Flow of Refrigerant (R-123) Across a Bank of Micro Pin Fins,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 49(17–18), pp. 3142–3155. [CrossRef]
Prasher, R. , Chang, J.-Y. , Myers, A. , Chau, D. , and He, D. , 2007, “ Nusselt Number and Friction Factor of Staggered Arrays of Low Aspect Ratio Micropin-Fins Under Cross Flow for Water as Fluid,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 129(2), pp. 141–153. [CrossRef]
Brunschwiler, T. , Michel, B. , Rothuizen, H. , Kloter, U. , Wunderle, B. , Oppermann, H. , and Reichl, H. , 2009, “ Interlayer Cooling Potential in Vertically Integrated Packages,” Microsyst. Technol., 15(1), pp. 57–74. [CrossRef]
Qu, W. , and Siu-Ho, A. , 2008, “ Liquid Single Phase Flow in an Array of Micro-Pin-Fins—Part I: Heat Transfer Characteristics,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 130(12), p. 122402. [CrossRef]
Mita, J. , Qu, W. , and Siu-Ho, A. , 2015, “ Pressure Drop of Water Flow Across a Micro-Pin Fin Array—Part 1: Isothermal Liquid Single-Phase Flow,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 89, pp. 1073–1082. [CrossRef]
Kosar, A. , and Peles, Y. , 2007, “ Boiling Heat Transfer in a Hydrofoil-Based Micro Pin Fin Heat Sink,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 50(5–6), pp. 1018–1034. [CrossRef]
Krishnamurthy, S. , and Peles, Y. , 2008, “ Flow Boiling of Water in a Circular Staggered Micro-Pin Fin Heat Sink,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 51(5–6), pp. 1349–1364. [CrossRef]
Kosar, A. , and Peles, Y. , 2010, “ Flow Boiling Heat Transfer on Micro Pin Fins Entrenched in a Microchannel,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 132(4), p. 041007. [CrossRef]
Qu, W. , and Siu-Ho, A. , 2009, “ Experimental Study of Saturated Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in an Array of Staggered Micro-Pin-Fins,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 52(7–8), pp. 1853–1863. [CrossRef]
Isaacs, S. , Kim, Y. , McNamara, A. J. , Joshi, Y. , Zhang, Y. , and Bakir, M. S. , 2012, “ Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer in pin-Fin Enhanced Micro-Gaps,” 13th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), San Diego, CA, May 30–June 1.
David, T. , Mendler, D. , Mosyak, A. , Bar-Cohen, A. , and Hetsroni, G. , 2014, “ Thermal Management of Time-Varying High Heat Flux Electronic Devices,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 136(2), p. 021003. [CrossRef]
Reeser, A. , Bar-Cohen, A. , and Hetsroni, G. , 2014, “ High Quality ow Boiling Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Microgap Pin Fin Arrays,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 78, pp. 974–985. [CrossRef]
Falsetti, C. , Jafarpoorchekab, H. , Magnini, M. , Borhani, N. , and Thome, J. R. , 2017, “ Two-Phase Operational Maps, Pressure Drop, and Heat Transfer for Flow Boiling of R236fa in a Micro-Pin Fin Evaporator,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 107, pp. 805–819. [CrossRef]
Park, J. E. , Thome, J. R. , and Michael, B. , 2009, “ Effect of Inlet Orifices on Saturated CHF and flow Visualization in Multi-Microchannel Heat Sinks,” 25th Annual IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM), San Jose, CA, Mar. 15–19.
Han, X. , Fedorov, A. , and Joshi, Y. , 2016, “ Flow Boiling in Microgaps for Thermal Management of High Heat Flux Microsystems,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 138(4), p. 040801. [CrossRef]
Kline, S. J. , and McClintock, F. A. , 1953, “ Describing Uncertainties in Single-Sample Experiments,” Mech. Eng., 75, pp. 3–8.
Lee, P. , and Garimella, V. , 2008, “ Saturated Flow Boiling Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Silicon Microchannel Arrays,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 51(3–4), pp. 789–806. [CrossRef]
Renfer, A. , Tiwari, M. K. , Brunschwiler, T. , Michel, B. , and Poulikakos, D. , 2011, “ Experimental Investigation Into Vortex Structure and Pressure Drop Across Microcavities in 3D Integrated Liquid Electronics,” Exp. Fluids, 51(3), pp. 731–741. [CrossRef]
Nieuwstadt, F. T. , Boersma, B. J. , and Westerweel, J. , 2015, Turbulence: Introduction to Theory and Applications of Turbulent Flows, Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 48–50.
Short, B. E. , Raad, P. E. , and Price, D. C. , 2002, “ Performance of Pin Fin Cast Aluminium Coldwalls—Part 2: Colburn j-Factor Correlations,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 16(3), pp. 397–403. [CrossRef]
Chyu, M. K. , Hsing, Y. C. , Shih, T. I. P. , and Natarajan, V. , 1999, “ Heat Transfer Contributions of Pins and Endwall in Pin-Fin Arrays: Effects of Thermal Boundary Condition Modelling,” ASME J. Turbomach., 121(2), pp. 257–263. [CrossRef]
Zukauskas, A. , and Ulinskas, R. , 1972, “ Heat Transfer From Tubes in Cross Flow,” Adv. Heat Transfer, 8, pp. 93–160.
Borhani, N. , Agostini, B. , and Thome, J. R. , 2010, “ A Novel Time Strip Flow Visualisation Technique for Investigation of Intermittent Dewetting and Dryout in Elongated Bubble Flow in a Microchannel Evaporator,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 53(21–22), pp. 4809–4818. [CrossRef]
Szczukiewicz, S. , Borhani, N. , and Thome, J. R. , 2013, “ Two-Phase Heat Transfer and High-Speed Visualization of Refrigerant Flows in 100 × 100 μm Silicon Multi-Microchannels,” Int. J. Refrig., 36(2), pp. 402–413. [CrossRef]
Ong, C. L. , and Thome, J. R. , 2011, “ Macro-to-Microchannel Transition in Two-Phase Flow—Part 2: Flow Boiling Heat Transfer and Critical Heat Flux,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 35(6), pp. 873–886. [CrossRef]
Huang, H. , and Thome, J. R. , 2016, “ Local Measurements and a New Flow Pattern Based Model for Subcooled and Saturated Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in Multi-Microchannel Evaporators,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 103, pp. 701–714. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental flow loop

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Test section top side (a), bottom side (b), micro-pin fins geometry and configuration of the heated area (c and d)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Experimental repeatability of the heat transfer coefficient versus vapor quality

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Total single-phase pressure drops versus mass flux

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Friction factor versus Reynolds number

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Average Nusselt number versus Reynolds number. Comparison with existing correlations.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Total two-phase pressure drop versus outlet vapor quality varying the test conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a) Micro-evaporator base temperature measured with the IR camera, (b) corresponding heat transfer coefficient calculated with the explained data reduction, (c) screenshot from the high-speed camera, and (d) local heat transfer coefficient averaged along the widthwise direction, under the test conditions of G = 1000 kg/m2 s, q = 28 W/cm2, and Tsat = 35 °C. Flow is from the left to the right.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Local heat transfer coefficient versus vapor quality. Effects of heat flux when G = 1000 kg/m2 s (a), and G = 1500 kg/m2 s (b). Tsat = 35 °C.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Local heat transfer coefficient versus vapor quality. Effects of mass flux when q = 28 W/cm2 (a), and G = 40 W/cm2 (b). Tsat = 35 °C.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Local heat transfer coefficient along the streamwise direction, with flow visualization screenshots obtained by means of the high-speed camera. Tsat = 35 °C.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Local heat transfer coefficient versus vapor quality. Effects of the outlet saturation temperature. Test conditions: G = 1500 kg/m2 s, q = 40 W/cm2.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In