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Thermal Performance of a Light Emitting Diode Light Engine for a Multipurpose Automotive Exterior Lighting System With Competing Board Technologies

[+] Author and Article Information
Umut Zeynep Uras

EVATEG Center,
Mechanical Engineering Department,
Ozyegin University,
Cekmekoy, Istanbul 34794, Turkey
e-mail: umut.uras@ozu.edu.tr

Mehmet Arık

Professor
Fellow ASME
EVATEG Center,
Mechanical Engineering Department,
Ozyegin University,
Cekmekoy, Istanbul 34794, Turkey
e-mail: mehmet.arik@ozyegin.edu.tr

Enes Tamdoğan

EVATEG Center,
Mechanical Engineering Department,
Ozyegin University,
Cekmekoy, Istanbul 34794, Turkey
e-mail: enestamdogan@gmail.com

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received December 16, 2016; final manuscript received March 28, 2017; published online June 12, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Justin A. Weibel.

J. Electron. Packag 139(2), 020907 (Jun 12, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: EP-16-1139; doi: 10.1115/1.4036403 History: Received December 16, 2016; Revised March 28, 2017

In recent years, light emitting diodes (LEDs) have become an attractive technology for general and automotive illumination systems replacing old-fashioned incandescent and halogen systems. LEDs are preferable for automobile lighting applications due to its numerous advantages such as low power consumption and precise optical control. Although these solid state lighting (SSL) products offer unique advantages, thermal management is one of the main issues due to severe ambient conditions and compact volume. Conventionally, tightly packaged double-sided FR4-based printed circuit boards (PCBs) are utilized for both driver electronic components and LEDs. In fact, this approach will be a leading trend for advanced internet of things applications embedded LED systems in the near future. Therefore, automotive lighting systems are already facing with tight-packaging issues. To evaluate thermal issues, a hybrid study of experimental and computational models is developed to determine the local temperature distribution on both sides of a three-purpose automotive light engine for three different PCB approaches having different materials but the same geometry. Both results showed that FR4 PCB has a temperature gradient (TMaxBoard to TAmbient) of over 63 °C. Moreover, a number of local hotspots occurred over FR4 PCB due to low thermal conductivity. Later, a metal core PCB is investigated to abate local hot spots. A further study has been performed with an advanced heat spreader board based on vapor chamber technology. Results showed that a thermal enhancement of 7.4% and 25.8% over Al metal core and FR4-based boards with the advanced vapor chamber substrate is observed. In addition to superior thermal performance, a significant amount of lumen extraction in excess of 15% is measured, and a higher reliability rate is expected.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Cross section and (b) front view of LED locations on the light engine (see color figure online)

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Fig. 2

Front (a) and back (b) of the painted test vehicles (see color figure online)

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Fig. 3

Experimental setup (see color figure online)

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Fig. 4

(a) Experimental case-1, (b) experimental case-2, (c) experimental case-3, and (d) experimental case-4 (see color figure online)

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Fig. 5

CFD model of the FR4-based board with LEDs and electronics (see color figure online)

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Fig. 6

CFD model of the board with mesh structure (see color figure online)

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Fig. 7

IR images of the LEDs' (front) side of the FR4-based board which are taken during different experimental cases: (a) case-1, (b) case-2, (c) case-3, and (d) case-4 (see color figure online)

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Fig. 8

IR images of the electronics' (back) side of the FR4-based board which are taken during different experimental cases: (a) case-1, (b) case-2, (c) case-3, and (d) case-4 (see color figure online)

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Fig. 9

IR images of the LEDs' (front) side of the Al-based board which are taken during different experimental cases: (a) case-1, (b) case-2, (c) case-3, and (d) case-4 (see color figure online)

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Fig. 10

IR images of the electronics' (back) side of the Al-based board which are taken during different experimental cases: (a) case-1, (b) case-2, (c) case-3, and (d) case-4 (see color figure online)

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Fig. 11

IR images of the LEDs' (front) side of the advanced heat spreader board which are taken during different experimental cases: (a) case-1, (b) case-2, (c) case-3, and (d) case-4 (see color figure online)

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Fig. 12

IR images of the electronics' (back) side of the advanced heat spreader board which are taken during different experimental cases: (a) case-1, (b) case-2, (c) case-3, and (d) case-4 (see color figure online)

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Fig. 13

IR images which are taken from LEDs' (front) side of the boards during the experimental case-4 for (a) FR4, (b) Al, and (c) advanced heat spreader board (see color figure online)

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Fig. 14

IR images which are taken from electronics' (back) side of the boards during the experimental case-4 for (a) FR4, (b) Al, and (c) advanced heat spreader board (see color figure online)

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Fig. 15

Comparison of board maximum temperatures at the LEDs' sides of three boards

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Fig. 16

Contour plot for temperature distribution of (a) LEDs from computational model, (b) LEDs from experimental findings, (c) electronics from CFD model, and (d) electronics from experimental findings for FR4-based board at case-4 (see color figure online)

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