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Review Article

A Review on Laser Processing in Electronic and MEMS Packaging OPEN ACCESS

[+] Author and Article Information
Kaysar Rahim

Starkey Hearing Technologies,
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
e-mail: kaysar_rahim@starkey.com

Ahsan Mian

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical and
Materials Engineering,
Wright State University,
3640 Colonel Glenn Highway,
Dayton, OH 45435
e-mail: ahsan.mian@wright.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received December 25, 2016; final manuscript received February 28, 2017; published online June 14, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Satish Chaparala.

J. Electron. Packag 139(3), 030801 (Jun 14, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: EP-16-1146; doi: 10.1115/1.4036239 History: Received December 25, 2016; Revised February 28, 2017

The packaging of electronic and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices is an important part of the overall manufacturing process as it ensures mechanical robustness as well as required electrical/electromechanical functionalities. The packaging integration process involves the selection of packaging materials and technology, process design, fabrication, and testing. As the demand of functionalities of an electronic or MEMS device is increasing every passing year, chip size is getting larger and is occupying the majority of space within a package. This requires innovative packaging technologies so that integration can be done with less thermal/mechanical effect on the nearby components. Laser processing technologies for electronic and MEMS packaging have potential to obviate some of the difficulties associated with traditional packaging technologies and can become an attractive alternative for small-scale integration of components. As laser processing involves very fast localized and heating and cooling, the laser can be focused at micrometer scale to perform various packaging processes such as dicing, joining, and patterning at the microscale with minimal or no thermal effect on surrounding material or structure. As such, various laser processing technologies are currently being explored by researchers and also being utilized by electronic and MEMS packaging industries. This paper reviews the current and future trend of electronic and MEMS packaging and their manufacturing processes. Emphasis is given to the laser processing techniques that have the potential to revolutionize the future manufacturing of electronic and MEMS packages.

Electronics and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) packaging refers to the housing of integrated circuits (IC) and electromechanical components to provide mechanical robustness and their interconnection to structure electronic systems. It incorporates various functions, for example, chip protection and support, heat dissipation, signal distribution, manufacturability and serviceability, and power distribution. Manufacturability, quality, and cost are the most important parameters to be considered while designing an electronic/MEMS package. In general, packaging technologies are categorized into three levels [1] as shown in Fig. 1. Each of the three packaging levels includes a growing number of parts, semiconductor chips, and passives that require being mounted on the system motherboard.

Electronic packaging technologies keep changing based on the ongoing interest. The microelectronics business is continuously looking for higher density packaging and more chip functionality. This results in bigger chips yet smaller packages, so that the die is becoming a larger portion of the total package volume. Figure 2 demonstrates the advancement of the first level packages in the most recent years [2]. The ever-increasing interest in more chip features in smaller packages drives the future packaging technology. More recently, three-dimensional (3D) stacked die packaging strategy is adopted to mitigate some of these challenges. All the scaling-down strategies for electronic packaging shown in Fig. 2 require efficient manufacturability and cost that turn out to be all the more difficult. Two commonly utilized miniaturization processes are complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) scaling and packaging scaling [3]. However, the packaging landscape is changing quickly toward system level scaling due to higher cost and manufacturing challenges of CMOS scaling. Figure 3 demonstrates the paradigm shift for system level scaling. Designs in the semiconductor enterprises and packaging foundries are exceptionally centered around the advancement of system in package (SiP) module. The premise of this idea is that while CMOS is great/reasonable for specific functions, for example, logic and memory, it is not good/reasonable for all functions, for example, filters, antenna, capacitors, resistors, power amplifiers, switches, optical waveguides, surface acoustic, bulk acoustic parts, and so on [4,5]. The laser advancements offer the adaptability to incorporate the above elements in the system levels [6].

Microelectromechanical systems or MEMS packaging has mostly been especially challenging on the grounds that almost every process and device requires a unique approach. MEMS is certainly the most complicated system for packaging institutionalization, and the issue will keep growing as cutting-edge MEMS technology advances [7]. In future, MEMS manufactures may require developing device-specific packaging schemes. Figure 4 demonstrates the development of MEMS packaging in the course of the most recent decade. In recent years, wafer level package (WLP) turns out to be more mainstream and attractive solution for advanced packaging technology where laser process can be added to the fabrication and assembly process, for example, die thinning, singulation, and attachment to the substrate.

In light of the earlier discussion, it is apparent that the laser processing technology can offer appealing tasks for packaging both electronic and MEMS devices. The common processes for both electronic and MEMS packaging involve patterning for metal deposition, sensor fabrication on molded epoxy, dicing or cutting, drilling for 3D integration, and joining of similar or dissimilar materials for encapsulation as well as electrical interconnection, all of which can be performed by a laser. The laser processing techniques employed in packaging technologies use high-density power at a very small spot size typically at micrometer scales. The heating and cooling rate associated with laser processing are very high that results in very little or no thermal effects on surrounding components. This inherent quality of laser processing can mitigate some of the difficulties associated with small-scale packaging as needed for packaging today's electronic and MEMS devices. Thus, the laser processing technology is finding an expanding number of uses in the manufacture of the advanced microelectronic and MEMS devices [8]. The adaptability of computer-controlled laser processing yields rapid turnaround times, improved precision, and reasonable pricing. It is a noncontact and clean processing method that can offer exact shape, size, and print registration. These multiple abilities show why laser processing is becoming more widely adopted in flexible packaging applications [9], which is discussed in detail in Sec. 3. Digital laser processing technology allows users to laser cut, etch, and mark on almost any material including plastics, metals, silicone rubbers, fabrics, composites, laminating adhesives, and other advanced materials. The main benefit is that any design can be transferred from graphic software to laser system software to perform the laser processing. It also permits to perform multiprocess, for example, cut, imprint, and stamp in one stage. In this paper, recent advances in laser fabrication of electronic and MEMS packages are reviewed. First, various laser processing technologies used in general are briefly discussed. The techniques that are currently being utilized by packaging industries as well as explored by researchers are also presented. Emphasis is given on the laser processing methods that have the potential to revolutionize electronic and MEMS packaging industry.

The uses of laser technology in manufacturing electronics and MEMS packaging are broad, including fast printed circuit board (PCB) prototyping, PCB depaneling, surface-mount technology (SMT) stencils, laser welding and soldering, laser direct structuring (LDS), laser micromachining and decapsulation, laser marking on silicon chip, laser dicing, and singulation. In Secs. 2.12.6, several common laser processing techniques used in different application areas are described in brief.

Laser Drilling.

Laser drilling is a method of making through openings, referred to as “popped” holes or “percussion drilled” holes, by using focused pulsed laser that deposits pulsed energy on a material thereby vaporizing layer by layer (Fig. 5) until a through-hole is created [10,11]. The higher the pulse energy, the more material is dissolved and vaporized. Vaporization causes the material volume in the penetrated hole to increase, which creates high pressure ousting the molten material from the opening. In general, laser beam diameter at focus is typically 0.2 mil (5 μm), which is the diameter of the “laser drill-bit.” Also, the typical required hole diameters are 1.6 mil (40 μm) to 4 mils (100 μm). The gap between these holes can be as small as 2 mils, or even smaller, depending on the material and process used. In the event that bigger openings are required, the laser spot is moved around the circumference of the hole in a technique known as trepanning until the desired diameter is created. Throughout the years, a few drilling procedures [10] are created from the fundamental strategy as shown by a schematic diagram in Fig. 6. The laser drilling offers many advantages over mechanical drilling (e.g., mechanical drilling are punching, proposing and wire electrical discharge machining (EDM)) such as no drill breakage or apparatus wear due to the noncontact prepare, boundless hole sizes and shape because of the programming adaptability, drill openings on angled and curved surfaces due to the noncontact handle and multipivot capacity, capacity to drill both hard and delicate materials due to the noncontact cutting procedure, cost competitive because of the quick drilling cycles, no consumable expenses, and negligible downtime.

Laser Cutting.

The laser can perform a variety of cutting tasks ranging from the micrometer-scale cutting of thin semiconductor chips to quality cuts in several mm thick metals [1214]. In laser cutting, the laser beam strikes the workpiece and heats up the material so much that it softens or even vaporizes. When the workpiece absorbs the sufficient amount of energy, the cutting procedure begins. A schematic of laser cutting procedure is shown in Fig. 7. Usually, a stream of gas blows the molten material downwards out of the cut. The cut width is typically little larger than the laser beam diameter itself. In general, laser beam diameter at focus is typically 0.2 mil (5 μm), which is the diameter of the laser drill-bit. Table 1 shows the CO2 laser tube cutting parameters published by Phillicam Group Ruofen [15]. Package-specific cutting processes such as laser excise and laser dicing are described Sec. 3.

Laser Welding, Soldering, and Joining.

Laser beam welding (LBW) is a welding procedure used to join various pieces of metal or dissimilar materials using a laser [16,17]. The welding process involves the melting and fusing of joining materials at the interface. In general, a continuous-wave (cw) laser is used to deliver a concentrated heat creating narrow and deep welds at high rates. LBW uses high power density (on the order of 1 MW/cm2) with little heat-affected zones, and heating and cooling rates are very high. The spot size of the laser can vary between 0.2 mm and 13 mm; however, typically smaller sizes are utilized for welding. Another class of laser joining involves melting of one part (transmission bonding) or no melting at all (conduction bonding), creating chemical bonds and mechanical interaction at the interface. A schematic representation of transmission laser microjoining procedure is shown in Fig. 8 where the laser is transmitted through the top layer (transparent at the laser wavelength) depositing energy at the interface that initiates the formation of chemical bonds. Compared with typical joining processes such as adhesive joining and soldering, laser welding or joining have several advantages such as less damage on workpieces, higher production rates, joining dissimilar materials with no filler, and practically no flux or other promoter needed to improve joint quality.

Laser Cladding.

Laser cladding is a processing method of adding a controlled amount of one material on the surface of another [6]. A stream of metal alloy powder to be deposited is fed into the path of a focused laser beam as it is scanned over the objective surface. The laser melts the powder, and molten material is deposited on the target surface specifically exactly where it is required. Figure 9 demonstrates a schematic diagram of laser cladding process. Main advantages are exact deposition of extra material where desired, a wide choice of various deposited materials, completely fused deposits to the substrate with little or zero porosity, simple to automate and integrate with computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and computer numerical control (CNC) production environments, insignificant heat input bringing about narrow heat-affected zone, and so on. Likewise, insignificant heat input results in distortion of the substrate and may require extra corrective machining. The typical range of coating layer thickness for laser cladding process is 0.2–2 mm with multiple layers possible. In spite of its many advantages, the use of laser cladding procedure is not well known in electronic and MEMS packaging. However, the potential areas for laser cladding process are conductor imprinting on organic substrate, PCB rework, and chip interconnect.

Laser Direct Structuring.

The LDS procedure utilizes a thermoplastic material doped with metal oxide additives that are later on activated by laser [1820]. First, metal oxide (MOx) additives are mixed with a thermoplastic polymer and are used to manufacture parts using injection molding process. A laser then creates a track of the circuit trace on the surface of the injection molded doped plastic. The laser energy activates the additives within the organic matrix into a species that is catalytically effective for the subsequent chemical metallization. No nucleation occurs during the processing of doped thermoplastic owing to the good temperature resistance of MOx additives. The laser-activated plastic parts are then subjected to metallization in chemical copper baths. The additive has a catalytic effect in the irradiated areas so that the metallization takes place only in the laser-structured areas of the component. It is observed that the MOx additives have no effects on the electrical characteristics of the LDS deposited metal traces [19]. A schematic of LDS procedure is shown in Fig. 10.

Laser-Assisted Deposition.

The best-known laser-assisted deposition procedures are ablative sputtering and laser chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) methods [21]. By ablative sputtering, also known as pulsed laser deposition (PLD), the material is removed from a solid target in a partial vacuum and redeposited on the workpiece [22,23]. Like conventional (RF/magnetron) sputtering, the PLD process is unable to create deposition in selected regions; rather it deposits materials on all exposed surfaces of the workpiece. The main advantage of the process is that high melting point and multicomponent materials can be deposited, which is not otherwise possible by other deposition methods.

In Sec. 2, very common laser processing methods that are used by various industries are outlined. In this section, focus is given on the popular laser technologies adopted specifically by electronic and MEMS packaging industries. While discussing these techniques, efforts by various researchers in the field that are published in the literature are also discussed.

Laser Drilling for Microvia Plating.

The current progress in superior handheld devices such as smart phones and tablet PCs is playing a critical role in the growth of the electronics industry. These devices incorporate high-density interconnection (HDI) that requires multilayer PCB with the electrical connection between layers through interlayer vias. Four microvia creation processes such as laser drilling, ultraviolet (UV) exposed via mechanical drilling and plasma etching, are widely used. As of now, CO2 laser drilling machines are broadly used in the processing of interlayer microvias. Every technology has its own merits and demerits; however, the laser drilling method is the leading technology in creating blind microvias when considering cost per via, quality, size and its dynamic range, and throughput [10]. Table 2 demonstrates the range in via sizes that the present laser technology offers. More than 90% of blind microvia are formed with laser technology as shown in Table 2. In addition to blind vias, lasers are used to create buried or through microvias in HDI PCB technology as well (Fig. 11). Sun and Swenson [24] demonstrated the utilization of solid-state UV laser and CO2 lasers in electronic packaging including via formation on PCB and via formation on a silicon wafer.

The laser drilling technology offers a good solution to package size reduction; one of the applications is the scaling down of hearing aid processors. Figure 12 demonstrates the level of size reduction of a chip utilizing embedded die chip-in-flex (CIF) technology where laser microvia are used [9]. The CIF multichip module turned out to be very a successful design compared to the earlier ceramic hybrid-based design. It may be mentioned here that the original device was 5.74 mm × 3.45 mm × 2.43 mm thick, while the new device was 4.39 mm × 3.44 mm × 1.325 mm thick. The laser microvia technology was able to achieve a volumetric size reduction of 60%. The cost tradeoff between mechanical and laser via drilling still needs some considerations. Dr. Alan Ferguson from Oxford Lasers presented a high-level report at IEE SW test workshop on June 2008 [25] where he reported the drilling rates and tolerances for silicon nitride and polyimide. Table 3 shows a comparison between mechanical and laser drilling of SiN and polyimide. It is clear from the data that although the hourly rate for laser processing method is higher than mechanical drilling, the laser processing is more cost-effective for high-volume processing.

Laser Excise for Panel Singulation.

Laser excise is a depaneling procedure that extracts varieties of parts from a bigger sheet or board of both rigid and flex circuit [26]. Flexible circuits are ordinarily manufactured in sheet or roll formats. One of the last steps in the fabrication process is to extract the part from the substrate. There are various approaches to defining the circuits. The typical methods utilized in the flex circuit industry are ruled die cutting, mechanical punching, and laser skiving. The trade-offs among all the singulation processes include cost, precision, or productivity. However, the laser extracting technology offers the highest level of accuracy as compared with any other excise technology and capable of making complex shapes. Laser excising method utilizes the technology where a circuit cutline can be made by a computer controlled highly focused laser beam. The laser beam utilizes a high level of energy to burn away the polymers. Figure 13 demonstrates a case of laser depaneling of printed circuits.

Laser Dicing and Singulation.

Laser dicing and singulation falls under the laser cutting process described in Sec. 2.2. In semiconductor fabrication, the recent trend has been to use larger wafers so that more die can be fabricated at once reducing the overall fabrication cost. The wafer itself is becoming thin to have small footprint package while accommodating higher functionalities in a die. This requires special care to the wafer dicing process that includes issues, for example, how many chips can be removed from one wafer or how to remove chips of complex incorporated circuits without damaging them. So the dicing procedure turned out to be ever harder as the chips becoming smaller and smaller with more features. As the wafers get to be distinctly thinner and larger, the laser dicing process offers distinct advantages over mechanical dicing such as increased speed and high yield of fabrication.

Due to the inherent property of laser being high power density fast processing at the small spot, laser cutting method can meet these challenges associated with current dicing needs [27]. Laser dicing offers many benefits while comparing with normal mechanical dicing, for example, high-speed dicing, high quality (no chips, no tidy), low kerf loss (enhances chip yield rate), completely dry process, and low running expenses. Figure 14 demonstrates differences of outcomes from laser dicing and mechanical dicing when a thin silicon wafer is utilized. In mechanical dicing, kerf loss occurs that is comparable to the saw width and also various chipping is formed. On the other hand, the laser cutting performs clean dicing with basically no kerf loss (<10 μm) and no chipping. Since the laser dicing process does not require cooling fluids, this can be a big advantage for certain MEMS where dry dicing methods are a must for the preparation (e.g., the ones for bioelectronics applications). This cutting technique can effectively handle wafers with irregularly shaped die like polygons formed die, for example, hexagons and octagons (Fig. 15). By applying the Hasen Cut [28] (laser on/off), the dicing street can likewise support discontinuous die layout, as shown in Fig. 16.

There are several laser dicing processes such as ablation-based dicing [29,30], stealth dicing (SD) [12,14,31,32], and thermal crack propagation [30]. Basic principle of ablation-based method is shown in Fig. 7 where a pulsed laser beam is focused on the wafer surface and laser beam energy is absorbed on the wafer surface. The absorbed laser beam energy ablates or crystalographically deforms the wafer surface depending on the amount of absorbed energy. If needed, the wafer is scanned multiple times until a cut is made to the tape. Although the method offers vibration free processing, the influence of heat and contamination from debris is an important concern in the laser ablation method. When the surface of a wafer is ablated, the particles adhere to the wafer surface and they become contaminants [32]. This concern is addressed by developing a cleaner process called SD technique. In SD method, laser beam at a wavelength capable of transmitting trough a semiconductor wafer (usually a solid-state laser with the wavelength of 1064 nm) is focused at a point inside the semiconductor wafer by using an objective lens. The pulsed laser with short pulse width and high repetition rate is condensed up to a diffraction threshold level in the vicinity of its focal point. This localized energy creates subsurface defects which act as crack initiation sites and guides for separation. The next step is the tape expansion process in which a cylindrical stage pushes up dicing tape separating the die along the SD lines. Figure 17 shows a schematic diagram of the SD process and the formation of a modified layer. Since the laser processing occurs only at the inside of the wafer, the SD method offer many advantages over ablation-based process such as high quality (no chips and dust-free), ultra-thin chips, low kerf loss (better chip production yield), and completely dry process [12,32]. SD process can handle 10 μm kerf width, which is an important technical advantage that improves the chip yield per wafer [12]. Table 4 shows Hamamatsu's Stealth technical data on chip yield improvement due to 10 μm kerf width [12]. More recently, a similar process has been explored by Haupt et al. [30] where a near-infrared (1047 nm) cw beam was utilized to produce thermal stress and consequently controlled fracture of 220-μm-thick silicon wafers.

Laser Soldering Process for Highly Integrated Three-Dimensional Packaging.

Laser soldering procedures can be successfully employed where regular as well as customizable point-specific soldering is needed. The small spot size, high power density laser beam offers many favorable conditions, especially for scaled down subassemblies or sensitive components. The procedure does not harm or contribute heat into adjacent components. Thus, even small electronic components in the order of a couple of tenths of a millimeter as well as heat sensitive electronic parts can be soldered. Quick power controllability coupled with a noncontact temperature estimation to minimize thermal effect makes the laser welding a very attractive soldering technique. In laser welding process, the filler metal or compound is heated to its softening temperatures around 450 °C. In this manner, lasers with lower yield powers (regularly <100 W) are utilized to melt the wire material, soldering paste, or solder deposits between two firmly placed joining materials [33]. Choi and Kim [34] exhibited a procedure to create Cu bumps on a substrate utilizing a modified laser beam.

Traditional welding systems such as the soldering iron require a direct mechanical contact between the welding apparatus and the solder joint, or the soldering instrument must be near the solder joint. This is unrealistic in some cases because of space limitations for small packages. The main advantages of the laser soldering process are high accuracy, low and localized heat input for temperature sensitive parts, and no thermal effects on neighboring components. However, there are some constraints of laser soldering in high volume production because of the slow process.

Laser Direct Structuring for Three-Dimensional Packaging.

The LDS is performed on injection molded doped thermoplastic components where a laser beam creates circuit layout on the molded parts with a template from CAD layout using a computer. The major advantage of the process is its fabrication flexibility by transferring the digital configuration of full 3D trace layout to freestyle surfaces. This is essentially an electroless metallization process that can be combined with the currently popular 3D printing technology. This allows the reduction of the weight and size of the component, and reduction in a total number of parts to be fabricated. Recently, a complex dental device (Fig. 18) is produced by KaVo Dental GmbH using LDS technology where the 3D circuit is made specifically on the plastic carrier on both front and back sides, including the required through plating [35]. The LDS technology was able to reduce both the weight and size of the handpiece.

Any changes in circuit layout of an LDS part can easily be done by modifying the laser program. By using the corresponding chipsets and circuit layouts, various products are created that are based on a single injection-molded part. The LDS process allows for the installation of unpackaged chips, such as via wire bonding or flip chip technology. The process creates the smooth metal surfaces that are required for secure contacts.

MEMS-Specific Applications.

At present, the use of laser processing in MEMS is very limited. Three-dimensional chip stacking is one of the laser applications for MEMS sensor creations. One major application is the manufacturing of pressure sensors for mechanical application. It is applied to the simple stacking of dies in the three-dimensional MEMS housing. For the same application, the sensor and associated control circuitry are joined using the laser joining method. A combination of 3D-LDS and laser joining/welding ensures the stacking of various parts at different levels of a housing carrier to ensure a compact MEMS package. Figure 19 demonstrates the pressure sensor where sensor and evaluation circuit are combined. Figure 20 demonstrates the complete pressure sensor manufactured by Harting AG [20,35] where the ASIC is incorporated and the mechanical connections are part of the package.

The low heat dissipation strategy and short process time benefit when joining heat sensitive parts; thus, laser joining is probably going to be an important technology for assembly and packaging of MEMS. One promising application in MEMS packaging is plastic welding [11,12]. In this procedure, a weld is created at the interface between two polymers: one transparent to the radiation and the other absorbing. Laser energy is absorbed by the opaque material at the interface as it passes through the transparent side. This procedure was utilized as a part of the film micropump created at Institut fur Mikrotechnik Mainz (IMM) [36]. The laser-assisted microjoints of dissimilar materials have also been explored medical device applications [3747] where the transmission joining method is employed. Lei and Raman [48] and Lorenz et al. [49] utilized localized laser heating methods to apply global heating during the bonding process to bond silicon to the glass with a benzocyclobutene (BCB) intermediate bonding layer. The utilization of high-power lasers in processing MEMS is also examined by Holmes [50]. They demonstrated laser micromachining for direct creation of MEMS structures. In general, LCVD is utilized to deposit thin films; however, it has been explored to create some free-form 3D structures [51]. This technology can be effectively used for MEMS processing where the material needs to be deposited specifically on nonplanar surfaces [51]. Figure 21 shows some 3D structures fabricated by LCVD demonstrating the flexibility of this laser rapid prototyping method.

In addition to the above-mentioned laser-based processing of electronic and MEMS packages, several other methods are also explored by researchers. Zhu et al. [52] created laser-weldable Sip–SiCp/Al half-breed composites with high-volume division (60–65%) of SiC support by compression molding and vacuum gas pressure infiltration technology. Das et al. [53] discussed the advancement of new laser-processing abilities including the synthesis and optimization of materials for tunable device applications. Marinov et al. [13,14] showed laser-enabled advanced packaging (LEAP) for the manufacture of a radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag where ultrathin dice was embedded in a flexible substrate. Laser-assisted chemical etching (LACE) that depends on the local enhancement of a chemical etching reaction by laser light has been utilized to manufacture different MEMS devices as reported in Ref. [54]. LACE has also been employed for 3D prototyping and machining of previously structured substrates [55]. LACE has been utilized essentially to micromachine PZT (lead–zirconate–titanate) films for piezoelectric actuators [56,57] and thin film shape memory alloys [58].

Three-dimensional stacking to form SiP is one of the potential future trends that incorporates electronics, nonelectronic devices such as optical devices, biological devices, MEMS, etc., with interconnection in a single package to form smart structures or microsystems [59,60]. Growing demand in automotive electronic applications as a consequence of the rapid increase in vehicle microcomputer and sensors use will require integrated packaging approach that may give rise to various issues involving size limitations, wire harness complexity, connector size, and electronic module and MEMS sensor packaging [61]. Furthermore, PCB/substrate technology needs to keep pace with future high-density electronic systems [62,63]. The future technical challenges involved with further fine pitch configurations can be addressed effectively by utilizing laser-based processing technologies.

It is more obvious that wafer level and 3D integration are turning out to be future trends for MEMS packaging [64]. Utilization of laser processing technologies for creating CMOS-compatible MEMS integration will continue to be the major applications, for example, low-temperature wafer bonding, precision molding, and encapsulations. Other potential uses of laser technology in future MEMS packaging may well be through-glass vias (TGV), through-silicon vias (TSV), thin film capping, active capping, dicing and singulations [6567].

Several of the laser processing technologies discussed before will continue to impact the way electronic and MEMS packaging is done. Fast PCB prototyping that incorporates various laser technologies such as milling and drilling of PCBs and laser structuring, through-hole plating, multilayer processing, surface finishing, SMT assembly, RF and microwave, surface machining, testing, and reworking will continue to be used. Other areas where the laser technologies are going to be employed are laser cuttings of flexible, flex-rigid and thin multilayers substrate, laser machining of flexible and rigid polymers with the most accuracy, UV laser drilling of microvias with finest hole diameters, and conductive pattern creation.

Because of the present and future expected broad utilization of thin silicon wafers in the microelectronics industry, there is a significant and growing interest for laser-based wafer dicing arrangements. As the wafers get to be distinctly thinner, laser-based methods have an advantage over mechanical dicing regarding both the speed and yield of the procedure. Moreover, managing heat in thin wafers during the dicing process is very important and the laser cutting technique offers better heat management due to fast heating and cooling of high power density energy input at microscale during the process [10,11]. Micromachining for direct fabrication of MEMS including covering the accompanying subjects and utilization of laser ablation in the direct manufacture of MEMS devices will continue to grow.

Various bonding areas in both electronic and MEMS packaging by utilizing localized laser heating will continue to grow. The bonding applications include solder bumping both at the wafer level and die level, silicon to silicon bonding for stacked die and MEMS packaging, silicon to glass bonding for MEMS encapsulation with or without a BCB intermediate bonding layer, etc. Additional application areas may include laser-assisted deposition and etching on planar and nonplanar surfaces and laser-assisted control of microparts and assembly.

One of the leading technologies is expected to be the LDS that has tremendous potential to affect the scaling down of electronic components. The LDS technology can be integrated with the current state-of-the-art 3D printing technology. It offers incredible flexibility where the adjustment and change of usefulness are concerned—specifically when elements for numerous items should be altered in a variable way. Also, the LDS technology can help eliminate extra wiring within the LDS parts itself rather than wire connections, because electronic parts are attached directly to LDS components or joined utilizing conductive paste eliminating the requirements for extra circuit boards. LDS technology is currently being used to fabricate a large number of reception devices for cell phones and tablets, and the technology will continue to be utilized in the field. Another application of LDS is medicinal hardware that requires smaller sizes with an increased number of functionalities. One of the great illustrations is shown in Fig. 22 where the electrical circuit board for steering wheels manufactured by TRW Automotive for BMW decreases the requirement for extra wiring [16,35].

This paper has briefly evaluated several laser processing technologies in electronic and MEMS packaging. Laser technologies offer unique capabilities in regard to materials adaptability and 3D structures. They can be combined with standard fabrication techniques making a huge impact on the advancement of future electronics and MEMS packages. Key application areas are probably going to be 3D packaging with better manufacturability, antenna and radio frequency packaging, medicinal wearable device packaging, MEMS sensors and actuators in light of practical materials, and microfluidic parts and systems.

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Chaminade, C. , Fogarassy, E. , and Boisselier, D. , 2006, “ Diode Laser Soldering Using a Lead-Free Filler Material for Electronic Packaging Structures,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 252(13), pp. 4406–4410. [CrossRef]
Liu, Y. , Zeng, L. , and Wang, C. , 2008, “ In-Situ Temperature Monitoring for Process Control in Laser Assisted Polymer Bonding for MEMS Packaging,” IEEE 2nd Electronics System Integration Technology Conference (ESTC), Greenwich, London, Sept. 1–8, pp. 199–205.
LPKF, 2016, “LDS Technology,” LPKF Laser and Electronics AG, Garbsen, Germany, accessed Feb. 28, 2016, http://www.lpkf.com
Goth, C. , and Romer, M. , 2014, “ Laser Direct Structuring and Two-Component Injection Molding for MID Series Production,” HARTING Mitronics, Bern, Switzerland, accessed Feb. 28, 2016, http://www.harting-mitronics.ch/fileadmin/hartingmitronics/white_papers/Laser_direct_structuring_and_two-component_injection_molding_for_MID_series_production.pdf
LaserMicronics, 2016, “ Three-Dimensional Circuits With LDS—Laser Direct Structuring and Metallization for 3D Mechatronic Integrated Devices,” LaserMicronics, Garbsen, Germany, accessed Feb. 28, 2017, http://www.lasermicronics.com/_mediafiles/80-lds-technology-for-moulded-interconnect-devices.pdf
Gower, M. C. , 1994, “ Excimer Lasers: Current and Future Applications in Industry and Medicine,” Laser Processing in Manufacturing, R. C. Crafer and P. J. Oakley , eds., Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 189–271.
Bauerle, D. , 1986, Chemical Processing With Lasers, Vol. 1, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Kovacs, G. T. A. , Maluf, N. L. , and Petersen, K. E. , 1998, “ Bulk Micromachining of Silicon,” Proc. IEEE, 86(8), pp. 1536–1551. [CrossRef]
Sun, Y. , and Swenson, E. , 2003, “ Lasers in Electronics Packaging,” Fifth International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (ICEPT), Shanghai, China, Oct. 28–30, p. 137.
Ferguson, A. , 2008, “ Comparison of Drilling Rates and Tolerances of Laser-Drilled Holes in Silicon Nitride and Polyimide Vertical Probe Cards,” IEEE SW Test Workshop, Semiconductor Test Workshop, San Diego, CA, June 8–11, accessed Feb. 28, 2017, http://www.swtest.org/swtw_library/2008proc/pdf/s06_01_ferguson_swtw2008.pdf
All Flex, 2016, “Existing Flexible Circuits,” All Flex Flexible Circuits, Northfield, MN, accessed Feb. 28, 2017, http://www.allflexinc.com/blog/excising-flexible-circuits/
Bovatsek, J. M. , and Patel, R. S. , 2010, “ Highest-Speed Dicing of Thin Silicon Wafers With Nanosecond-Pulse 355nm q-Switched Laser Source Using Line-Focus Fluence Optimization Technique,” Proc. SPIE, 7585, p. 75850K.
FOTONiKA, 2017, “FOTONiKA, Yari iletken teknolojileri,” FOTONIKA INC., Ankara, Turkey, accessed Feb. 28, 2017, http://www.fotonika.com.tr/index.php/en/
Way, D. W. C. , and Ying, L. C. , 2008, “ High Speed Wafer Dicing With Ablation Laser Cut,” IEEE/CPMT International Electronics Manufacturing Technology (IEMT) Symposium, 33rd IEEE/CPMT International Electronics Manufacturing Technology Conference (IEMT), Penang, Malaysia, Nov. 4–6.
Haupt, O. , Siegel, F. , Schoonderbeek, A. , Richter, L. , Kling, R. , and Ostendorf, A. , 2008, “ Laser Dicing of Silicon: Comparison of Ablation Mechanisms With a Novel Technology of Thermally Induced Stress,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng., 3(3), pp. 135–140. [CrossRef]
Hamamatsu Photonics KK, 2005, “Stealth Dicing Technology and Applications,” Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Iwata, Japan, accessed Mar. 22, 2017, https://www.hamamatsu.com/resources/pdf/etd/SD_tech_TLAS9004E.pdf
Kumagai, M. , Uchiyama, N. , Ohmura, E. , Sugiura, R. , Atsumi, K. , and Fukumitsu, K. , 2007, “ Advanced Dicing Technology for Semiconductor Wafer—Stealth Dicing,” IEEE Trans. Semiconductor Manuf., 20(3), pp. 259–265. [CrossRef]
Rofin/Coherent, 2017, “Laser Soldering: Where Conventional Soldering Techniques Reach Their Limits,” Rofin/Coherent, Hamburg, Germany, accessed Feb. 28, 2017, https://www.rofin.com/en/applications/laser-soldering-and-brazing/laser-soldering/
Choi, W.-S. , and Kim, J. , 2012, “ Laser-Assisted Deposition of Cu Bumps for Microelectronic Packaging,” Trans. Nonferrous Metals Soc. China, 22 (Suppl. 3), pp. s683–s687. [CrossRef]
LPKF Laser and Electronics, 2014, “Three-Dimensional Circuits: LPKF LDS: Laser Direct Structuring for 3D Molded Interconnect Devices,” LPKF Laser & Electronics AG, Garbsen, Germany, accessed Feb. 28, 2017, http://www.lpkf.com/_mediafiles/1797-lpkf-laser-direct-structuring-en.pdf
Kämper, K.-P. , Dopper, J. , Ehrfeld, W. , and Oberbeck, S. , 1998, “ A Self-Filling Low-Cost Membrane Micropump,” IEEE Eleventh Annual International Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), Heidelberg, Germany, Jan. 25–29, pp. 432–437.
Newaz, G. , Mian, A. , Sultana, T. , Mahmood, T. , Georgiev, D. G. , Auner, G. , Witte, R. , and Herfurth, H. , 2006, “ A Comparison Between Glass/Polyimide and Titanium/Polyimide Microjoint Performances in Cerebrospinal Fluid,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part A, 79(1), pp. 159–165. [CrossRef]
Mian, A. , Sultana, T. , Georgiev, D. , Witte, R. , Herfurth, H. , Auner, G. , and Newaz, G. , 2009, “ Postimplantation Pressure Testing and Characterization of Laser Bonded Glass/Polyimide Microjoints,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B, 90(2), pp. 614–620. [CrossRef]
Mian, A. , Law, J. , and Newaz, G. , 2010, “ Analysis of Laser Fabricated Microjoint Performance in Cerebrospinal Fluid Using a Computational Approach,” J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 4(1), pp. 117–124. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mahmooda, T. , Miane, A. , Amine, M. R. , Auner, G. , Witte, R. , Herfurth, H. , and Newaza, G. , 2007, “ Finite Element Modeling of Transmission Laser Microjoining Process,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 186(1–3), pp. 37–44. [CrossRef]
Georgiev, D. G. , Sultana, T. , Mian, A. , and Auner, G. , 2005, “ Laser Fabrication and Characterization of Sub-Millimeter Joints Between Polyimide and Ti-Coated Borosilicate Glass,” J. Mater. Sci., 40(21), pp. 5641–5647. [CrossRef]
Mian, A. , Newaz, G. , Mahmood, T. , and Auner, G. , 2007, “ Mechanical Characterization of Glass/Polyimide Microjoints Fabricated Using CW Fiber and Diode Lasers,” J. Mater. Sci., 42(19), pp. 8150–8157. [CrossRef]
Mian, A. , Newaz, G. , Georgiev, D. G. , Rahman, N. , Vendra, L. , Auner, G. , Witte, R. , and Herfurth, H. , 2007, “ Performance of Laser Bonded Glass/Polyimide Microjoints in Cerebrospinal Fluid,” J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Med., 18(3), pp. 417–427. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mian, A. , Newaz, G. , Vendra, L. , Rahman, N. , Georgiev, D. G. , Auner, G. , Witte, R. , and Herfurth, H. , 2005, “ Laser Bonded Microjoints Between Titanium and Polyimide for Applications in Medical Implants,” J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Med., 16(3), pp. 229–237. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Hailat, M. , Mian, A. , Chaudhury, Z. A. , Newaz, G. , Patwa, R. , and Herfurth, H. J. , 2012, “ Laser Micro-Welding of Aluminum and Copper With and Without Tin Foil Alloy,” Microsyst. Technol., 18(1), pp. 103–112. [CrossRef]
Mian, A. , Mahmood, T. , Auner, G. , Witte, R. , Herfurth, H. , and Newaz, G. , 2006, “ Effects of Laser Parameters on the Mechanical Response of Laser Irradiated Micro-Joints,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 926, pp. 90–95. [CrossRef]
Mian, A. , Sultana, T. , Auner, G. , and Newaz, G. , 2007, “ Bonding Mechanisms of Laser-Fabricated Titanium/Polyimide and Titanium Coated Glass/Polyimide Microjoints,” Surf. Interface Anal., 39(6), pp. 506–511. [CrossRef]
Lei, W. , and Raman, S. , 2005, “ UV Laser Solutions for Electronic Interconnect and Packaging,” IEEE 6th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (ICEPT), Shenzhen, China, Aug. 30–Sept. 2.
Lorenz, N. , Smith, M. D. , and Hand, D. P. , 2011, “ Wafer-Level Packaging of Silicon to Glass With a BCB Intermediate Layer Using Localised Laser Heating,” Microelectron. Reliab., 51(12), pp. 2257–2262. [CrossRef]
Holmes, A. S. , 2001, “ Laser Fabrication and Assembly Processes for MEMS,” Proc. SPIE, 4274, p. 297.
Wanke, M. C. , Lehmann, O. , Müller, K. , Wen, Q. , and Stuke, M. , 1997, “ Laser Rapid Prototyping of Photonic Band-Gap Microstructures,” Science, 275(5304), pp. 1284–1286. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zhu, M.-J. , Li, S. , Zhao, X. , and Xiong, D.-D. , 2014, “ Laser-Weldable Sip‐SiCp/Al Hybrid Composites With Bilayer Structure for Electronic Packaging,” Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 24(4), pp. 1032–1038. [CrossRef]
Das, R. N. , Egitto, F. D. , and Markovich, V. R. , 2010, “ Laser Processing of Materials: A New Strategy Toward Materials Design and Fabrication for Electronic Packaging,” Circuit World, 36(2), pp. 24–32. [CrossRef]
Müllenborn, M. , Dirac, H. , Peterson, J. W. , and Bouwstra, S. , 1995, “ Fast 3D Laser Micromachining of Silicon for Micromechanical and Microfluidic Applications,” The 8th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators and Eurosensors IX (Transducers), Stockholm, Sweden, June 25–29, pp. 166–169.
Müllenborn, M. , Grey, F. , and Bouwstra, S. , 1997, “ Laser Direct Writing on Structured Substrates,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 7(3), pp. 125–127. [CrossRef]
Lappalainenet, J. , Frantti, J. , Moilanen, H. , and Leppävuori, S. , 1995, “ Excimer Laser Ablation of PZT Thin Films on Silicon Cantilever Beams,” Sens. Actuators A, 46(1–3), pp. 104–109. [CrossRef]
Maeda, R. , Kikuchi, K. M. , Schroth, A. , Umezawa., A. , and Matsumoto, S. , 1997, “ Deposition of PZT Thin Films by Pulsed Laser Ablation for MEMS Application,” Proc. SPIE, 3242, pp. 372–379.
Ikuta, K. , Hayashi, M. , Matsuura, T. , and Fujishiro, H. , 1994, “ Shape Memory Alloy Thin Film Fabricated by Laser Ablation,” IEEE Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), Oiso, Japan, Jan. 25–28, pp. 25–28.
Elshabini, A. , Wang, G. , and, Barlow, F. , 2006, “ Future Trends in Electronic Packaging,” Proc. SPIE, 6172, pp. 255–262.
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Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Topics: Lasers
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References

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Marinov, V. , Swenson, O. , Miller, R. , Sarwar, F. , Atanasov, Y. , Semler, M. , and Datta, S. , 2012, “ Laser-Enabled Advanced Packaging of Ultrathin Bare Dice in Flexible Substrates,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., 2(4), pp. 569–577. [CrossRef]
Marinov, V. R. , Swenson, O. , Atanasov, Y. , and Schneck, N. , 2013, “ Laser-Assisted Ultrathin die Packaging: Insights From a Process Study,” Microelectron. Eng., 101, pp. 23–30. [CrossRef]
PHILICAM, 2015, “ CO2 Laser Tube Cutting Parameter,” Jinan Ruofen Machinery Co. Ltd, Shandong, China, accessed Feb. 28, 2016, http://www.co2lasercutter.cn/support/knowledge/35.html
Chaminade, C. , Fogarassy, E. , and Boisselier, D. , 2006, “ Diode Laser Soldering Using a Lead-Free Filler Material for Electronic Packaging Structures,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 252(13), pp. 4406–4410. [CrossRef]
Liu, Y. , Zeng, L. , and Wang, C. , 2008, “ In-Situ Temperature Monitoring for Process Control in Laser Assisted Polymer Bonding for MEMS Packaging,” IEEE 2nd Electronics System Integration Technology Conference (ESTC), Greenwich, London, Sept. 1–8, pp. 199–205.
LPKF, 2016, “LDS Technology,” LPKF Laser and Electronics AG, Garbsen, Germany, accessed Feb. 28, 2016, http://www.lpkf.com
Goth, C. , and Romer, M. , 2014, “ Laser Direct Structuring and Two-Component Injection Molding for MID Series Production,” HARTING Mitronics, Bern, Switzerland, accessed Feb. 28, 2016, http://www.harting-mitronics.ch/fileadmin/hartingmitronics/white_papers/Laser_direct_structuring_and_two-component_injection_molding_for_MID_series_production.pdf
LaserMicronics, 2016, “ Three-Dimensional Circuits With LDS—Laser Direct Structuring and Metallization for 3D Mechatronic Integrated Devices,” LaserMicronics, Garbsen, Germany, accessed Feb. 28, 2017, http://www.lasermicronics.com/_mediafiles/80-lds-technology-for-moulded-interconnect-devices.pdf
Gower, M. C. , 1994, “ Excimer Lasers: Current and Future Applications in Industry and Medicine,” Laser Processing in Manufacturing, R. C. Crafer and P. J. Oakley , eds., Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 189–271.
Bauerle, D. , 1986, Chemical Processing With Lasers, Vol. 1, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Kovacs, G. T. A. , Maluf, N. L. , and Petersen, K. E. , 1998, “ Bulk Micromachining of Silicon,” Proc. IEEE, 86(8), pp. 1536–1551. [CrossRef]
Sun, Y. , and Swenson, E. , 2003, “ Lasers in Electronics Packaging,” Fifth International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (ICEPT), Shanghai, China, Oct. 28–30, p. 137.
Ferguson, A. , 2008, “ Comparison of Drilling Rates and Tolerances of Laser-Drilled Holes in Silicon Nitride and Polyimide Vertical Probe Cards,” IEEE SW Test Workshop, Semiconductor Test Workshop, San Diego, CA, June 8–11, accessed Feb. 28, 2017, http://www.swtest.org/swtw_library/2008proc/pdf/s06_01_ferguson_swtw2008.pdf
All Flex, 2016, “Existing Flexible Circuits,” All Flex Flexible Circuits, Northfield, MN, accessed Feb. 28, 2017, http://www.allflexinc.com/blog/excising-flexible-circuits/
Bovatsek, J. M. , and Patel, R. S. , 2010, “ Highest-Speed Dicing of Thin Silicon Wafers With Nanosecond-Pulse 355nm q-Switched Laser Source Using Line-Focus Fluence Optimization Technique,” Proc. SPIE, 7585, p. 75850K.
FOTONiKA, 2017, “FOTONiKA, Yari iletken teknolojileri,” FOTONIKA INC., Ankara, Turkey, accessed Feb. 28, 2017, http://www.fotonika.com.tr/index.php/en/
Way, D. W. C. , and Ying, L. C. , 2008, “ High Speed Wafer Dicing With Ablation Laser Cut,” IEEE/CPMT International Electronics Manufacturing Technology (IEMT) Symposium, 33rd IEEE/CPMT International Electronics Manufacturing Technology Conference (IEMT), Penang, Malaysia, Nov. 4–6.
Haupt, O. , Siegel, F. , Schoonderbeek, A. , Richter, L. , Kling, R. , and Ostendorf, A. , 2008, “ Laser Dicing of Silicon: Comparison of Ablation Mechanisms With a Novel Technology of Thermally Induced Stress,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng., 3(3), pp. 135–140. [CrossRef]
Hamamatsu Photonics KK, 2005, “Stealth Dicing Technology and Applications,” Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Iwata, Japan, accessed Mar. 22, 2017, https://www.hamamatsu.com/resources/pdf/etd/SD_tech_TLAS9004E.pdf
Kumagai, M. , Uchiyama, N. , Ohmura, E. , Sugiura, R. , Atsumi, K. , and Fukumitsu, K. , 2007, “ Advanced Dicing Technology for Semiconductor Wafer—Stealth Dicing,” IEEE Trans. Semiconductor Manuf., 20(3), pp. 259–265. [CrossRef]
Rofin/Coherent, 2017, “Laser Soldering: Where Conventional Soldering Techniques Reach Their Limits,” Rofin/Coherent, Hamburg, Germany, accessed Feb. 28, 2017, https://www.rofin.com/en/applications/laser-soldering-and-brazing/laser-soldering/
Choi, W.-S. , and Kim, J. , 2012, “ Laser-Assisted Deposition of Cu Bumps for Microelectronic Packaging,” Trans. Nonferrous Metals Soc. China, 22 (Suppl. 3), pp. s683–s687. [CrossRef]
LPKF Laser and Electronics, 2014, “Three-Dimensional Circuits: LPKF LDS: Laser Direct Structuring for 3D Molded Interconnect Devices,” LPKF Laser & Electronics AG, Garbsen, Germany, accessed Feb. 28, 2017, http://www.lpkf.com/_mediafiles/1797-lpkf-laser-direct-structuring-en.pdf
Kämper, K.-P. , Dopper, J. , Ehrfeld, W. , and Oberbeck, S. , 1998, “ A Self-Filling Low-Cost Membrane Micropump,” IEEE Eleventh Annual International Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), Heidelberg, Germany, Jan. 25–29, pp. 432–437.
Newaz, G. , Mian, A. , Sultana, T. , Mahmood, T. , Georgiev, D. G. , Auner, G. , Witte, R. , and Herfurth, H. , 2006, “ A Comparison Between Glass/Polyimide and Titanium/Polyimide Microjoint Performances in Cerebrospinal Fluid,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part A, 79(1), pp. 159–165. [CrossRef]
Mian, A. , Sultana, T. , Georgiev, D. , Witte, R. , Herfurth, H. , Auner, G. , and Newaz, G. , 2009, “ Postimplantation Pressure Testing and Characterization of Laser Bonded Glass/Polyimide Microjoints,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B, 90(2), pp. 614–620. [CrossRef]
Mian, A. , Law, J. , and Newaz, G. , 2010, “ Analysis of Laser Fabricated Microjoint Performance in Cerebrospinal Fluid Using a Computational Approach,” J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 4(1), pp. 117–124. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mahmooda, T. , Miane, A. , Amine, M. R. , Auner, G. , Witte, R. , Herfurth, H. , and Newaza, G. , 2007, “ Finite Element Modeling of Transmission Laser Microjoining Process,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 186(1–3), pp. 37–44. [CrossRef]
Georgiev, D. G. , Sultana, T. , Mian, A. , and Auner, G. , 2005, “ Laser Fabrication and Characterization of Sub-Millimeter Joints Between Polyimide and Ti-Coated Borosilicate Glass,” J. Mater. Sci., 40(21), pp. 5641–5647. [CrossRef]
Mian, A. , Newaz, G. , Mahmood, T. , and Auner, G. , 2007, “ Mechanical Characterization of Glass/Polyimide Microjoints Fabricated Using CW Fiber and Diode Lasers,” J. Mater. Sci., 42(19), pp. 8150–8157. [CrossRef]
Mian, A. , Newaz, G. , Georgiev, D. G. , Rahman, N. , Vendra, L. , Auner, G. , Witte, R. , and Herfurth, H. , 2007, “ Performance of Laser Bonded Glass/Polyimide Microjoints in Cerebrospinal Fluid,” J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Med., 18(3), pp. 417–427. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mian, A. , Newaz, G. , Vendra, L. , Rahman, N. , Georgiev, D. G. , Auner, G. , Witte, R. , and Herfurth, H. , 2005, “ Laser Bonded Microjoints Between Titanium and Polyimide for Applications in Medical Implants,” J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Med., 16(3), pp. 229–237. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Hailat, M. , Mian, A. , Chaudhury, Z. A. , Newaz, G. , Patwa, R. , and Herfurth, H. J. , 2012, “ Laser Micro-Welding of Aluminum and Copper With and Without Tin Foil Alloy,” Microsyst. Technol., 18(1), pp. 103–112. [CrossRef]
Mian, A. , Mahmood, T. , Auner, G. , Witte, R. , Herfurth, H. , and Newaz, G. , 2006, “ Effects of Laser Parameters on the Mechanical Response of Laser Irradiated Micro-Joints,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 926, pp. 90–95. [CrossRef]
Mian, A. , Sultana, T. , Auner, G. , and Newaz, G. , 2007, “ Bonding Mechanisms of Laser-Fabricated Titanium/Polyimide and Titanium Coated Glass/Polyimide Microjoints,” Surf. Interface Anal., 39(6), pp. 506–511. [CrossRef]
Lei, W. , and Raman, S. , 2005, “ UV Laser Solutions for Electronic Interconnect and Packaging,” IEEE 6th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (ICEPT), Shenzhen, China, Aug. 30–Sept. 2.
Lorenz, N. , Smith, M. D. , and Hand, D. P. , 2011, “ Wafer-Level Packaging of Silicon to Glass With a BCB Intermediate Layer Using Localised Laser Heating,” Microelectron. Reliab., 51(12), pp. 2257–2262. [CrossRef]
Holmes, A. S. , 2001, “ Laser Fabrication and Assembly Processes for MEMS,” Proc. SPIE, 4274, p. 297.
Wanke, M. C. , Lehmann, O. , Müller, K. , Wen, Q. , and Stuke, M. , 1997, “ Laser Rapid Prototyping of Photonic Band-Gap Microstructures,” Science, 275(5304), pp. 1284–1286. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zhu, M.-J. , Li, S. , Zhao, X. , and Xiong, D.-D. , 2014, “ Laser-Weldable Sip‐SiCp/Al Hybrid Composites With Bilayer Structure for Electronic Packaging,” Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 24(4), pp. 1032–1038. [CrossRef]
Das, R. N. , Egitto, F. D. , and Markovich, V. R. , 2010, “ Laser Processing of Materials: A New Strategy Toward Materials Design and Fabrication for Electronic Packaging,” Circuit World, 36(2), pp. 24–32. [CrossRef]
Müllenborn, M. , Dirac, H. , Peterson, J. W. , and Bouwstra, S. , 1995, “ Fast 3D Laser Micromachining of Silicon for Micromechanical and Microfluidic Applications,” The 8th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators and Eurosensors IX (Transducers), Stockholm, Sweden, June 25–29, pp. 166–169.
Müllenborn, M. , Grey, F. , and Bouwstra, S. , 1997, “ Laser Direct Writing on Structured Substrates,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 7(3), pp. 125–127. [CrossRef]
Lappalainenet, J. , Frantti, J. , Moilanen, H. , and Leppävuori, S. , 1995, “ Excimer Laser Ablation of PZT Thin Films on Silicon Cantilever Beams,” Sens. Actuators A, 46(1–3), pp. 104–109. [CrossRef]
Maeda, R. , Kikuchi, K. M. , Schroth, A. , Umezawa., A. , and Matsumoto, S. , 1997, “ Deposition of PZT Thin Films by Pulsed Laser Ablation for MEMS Application,” Proc. SPIE, 3242, pp. 372–379.
Ikuta, K. , Hayashi, M. , Matsuura, T. , and Fujishiro, H. , 1994, “ Shape Memory Alloy Thin Film Fabricated by Laser Ablation,” IEEE Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), Oiso, Japan, Jan. 25–28, pp. 25–28.
Elshabini, A. , Wang, G. , and, Barlow, F. , 2006, “ Future Trends in Electronic Packaging,” Proc. SPIE, 6172, pp. 255–262.
Gilleo, K. , 2006, “ The Future of Packaging,” All Flex Flexible Circuits, Northfield, MN, accessed Feb. 28, 2017, http://www.allflexinc.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/The-Future-of-Packaging.pdf
Minorikawa, H. , and Suda, S. , 1990, “ Current Status and Future Trends of Electronic Packaging in Automotive Applications,” SAE Technical Paper No. 901134.
Yoshihiri, N. , and Shigeki, K. , 2013, “ Technology Trends and Future History of Semiconductor Packaging Substrate Materials,” Hitachi Chemical Technical Report No. 55.
Cho, Y., Parmar, N. S., Nahm, S., and Choi, J. W., 2017, “Full Range Optical and Electrical Properties of Zn-doped SnO2 and Oxide/Metal/Oxide Multilayer Thin Films Deposited on Flexible PET Substrate,” J. Alloys Compd., 694, pp. 217–222.
Maarten, V. , 2013, “ An Overview of Emerging Trends in MEMS Packaging,” MEMS J., 5, epub, accessed Mar. 22, 2017 http://www.memsjournal.com/2013/05/an-overview-of-emerging-trends-in-mems-packaging.html
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Hierarchy of electronic packaging

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Fig. 2

Development of the first level packages in the last decades

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Fig. 3

IC packaging—the changing landscape

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Fig. 4

MEMS packaging—the changing landscape

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Fig. 5

Laser drilling process

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Fig. 6

A schematic of several laser drilling process

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Fig. 7

Laser cutting process

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Fig. 8

Schematic diagram of transmission laser microjoining process

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Fig. 9

Schematic diagram of laser cladding process

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Fig. 10

LDS process and laser activation principle

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Fig. 11

Types of vias in HDI PCB technology

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Fig. 12

Hearing aid's processor packaging size reduction by embedding technology with laser microvia process (2014 ECTC Presentation by Dzarnoski and Johansson [9])

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Fig. 13

Laser depaneling of PCD

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Fig. 14

A comparison stealth laser dicing over mechanical dicing (Images Courtesy of Hamamatsu Photonics KK. All Rights Reserved [31]).

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Fig. 15

Wafer laser dicing with hexagon die process

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Fig. 16

Wafer laser dicing with offset processing

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Fig. 17

Basic principle of SD method

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Fig. 18

Dental handpiece with LDS Technology (LPKF Laser and Electronics [18,20,35])

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Fig. 19

Fabrication of MEMS sensors by using LDS technology (source: LPKF Laser and Electronics [18,20,35])

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Fig. 20

Pressure sensor module with integrated ASIC in the molded housing (LPKF Laser and Electronics [18,20,35])

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Fig. 21

Three-dimensional structure fabricated by LCVD demonstrating the flexibility of this laser rapid prototyping method [51]

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Fig. 22

Steering wheel operating element (LPKF Laser and Electronics [18,20,35])

Tables

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Table 1 CO2 laser tube cutting parameters published by Phillicam Group Ruofen [15]
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Table 2 Microvia drilling technology in PCD (Coherent [11])
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Table 3 Cost comparison for mechanical versus laser drilling of silicon nitride and polyimide materials [25]
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Table 4 Improved chip yield data per wafer from SD [12]

Errata

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