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Review Article

Assembly of Heterogeneous Materials for Biology and Electronics: From Bio-Inspiration to Bio-Integration

[+] Author and Article Information
Yuyan Gao

Department of Engineering Science
and Mechanics,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802

Huanyu Cheng

Department of Engineering Science
and Mechanics,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802;
Materials Research Institute,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: huanyu.cheng@psu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received December 1, 2016; final manuscript received February 22, 2017; published online June 13, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Xiaobing Luo.

J. Electron. Packag 139(2), 020801 (Jun 13, 2017) (16 pages) Paper No: EP-16-1131; doi: 10.1115/1.4036238 History: Received December 01, 2016; Revised February 22, 2017

Specific function or application in electronics often requires assembly of heterogeneous materials in a single system. Schemes to achieve such goals are of critical importance for applications ranging from the study in basic cell biology to multifunctional electronics for diagnostics/therapeutics. In this review article, we will first briefly introduce a few assembly techniques, such as microrobotic assembly, guided self-assembly, additive manufacturing, and transfer printing. Among various heterogeneous assembly techniques, transfer printing represents a simple yet versatile tool to integrate vastly different materials or structures in a single system. By utilizing such technique, traditionally challenging tasks have been enabled and they include novel experimental platforms for study of two-dimensional (2D) materials and cells, bio-integrated electronics such as stretchable and biodegradable devices, and three-dimensional (3D) assembly with advanced materials such as semiconductors.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

A variety of demonstrations for bio-inspiration and bio-integration. (a) Nanostructured artificial nacre that is made from oriented, paralleled montmorillonite clay platelets (C) and polyelectrolytes (P), by cyclic repetition of the P-adsorption/rinsing/C-adsorption/rinsing process n times to yield the (P/C)n multilayers. Inset shows phase-contrast atomic-force microscopy (AFM) image of a (P/C)1 film on Si substrate. Reprinted with permission from Tang et al. [7]. Copyright 2003 by Nature Publishing Group. (b) A soft robot, actuated by a simple pneumatic valving system at low pressures (<10 psi), is capable of crawling and undulation gaits to navigate a difficult obstacle. Adapted with permission from Shepherd et al. [11]. Copyright 2011 by National Academy of Sciences. (c) Color shift in chameleons is achieved through active tuning of a lattice of guanine nanocrystals within two superposed layers of (superficial, S-; deep, D-) dermal iridophores (chameleonidae: I, Chamaeleo calyptratus; II, Rhampholeon spectrum; III, Kinyongia matschiei; scale bar of 500 nm). Reprinted with permission from Teyssier et al. [12]. Copyright 2015 by Nature Publishing Group. (d) Hydrophobic effect of the leg of the water strider is illustrated in (I) a maximal-depth dimple (4.38 ± 0.02 mm, side view) before piercing the water surface. Inset shows a contact angel of 167.6 ± 4.4 deg. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of a leg show (II) oriented microsetae and (III) fine nanoscale grooved structures on a seta. Scale bars: (II) 20 μm, (III) 200 nm. Reprinted with permission from Gao and Jiang [17]. Copyright 2004 by Nature Publishing Group. (e) Tactile sensor sheet tightly conforming to a model of the human upper jaw (scale bar of 1 cm). Reprinted with permission from Kaltenbrunner et al. [19]. Copyright 2013 by Nature Publishing Group. (f) Design and prototype of a bio-inspired active soft orthotic device. Reprinted with permission from Park et al. [21]. Copyright 2014 by IOP Publishing. (g) Fully integrated wearable sensor array on a subject's wrist for measurement and analysis of sweat metabolites, electrolytes, and skin temperature. Reprinted with permission from Gao et al. [23]. Copyright 2016 by Nature Publishing Group. (See figure online for color).

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Fig. 2

Microrobotic assembly, guided self-assembly, and additive manufacturing. (a) Microrobotic creation of a heterogeneous structure of copper cylinders (100 μm diameter) and polystyrene spheres (200 μm diameter) encased in poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEG) hydrogels. Inset shows the magnetic coil system that remotely controls microrobots. Reprinted with permission from Tasoglu et al. [33]. Copyright 2014 by Nature Publishing Group. (b) Schematic overview of printing patterned vascular architectures. Serving as a sacrificial scaffold, 3D printed interconnected carbohydrate glass lattice dissolves after it is encapsulated in extracellular matrices (ECMs) along with living cells, yielding a tissue construct with vascular network that matches the original lattice. Inset shows heterogeneous integration of 10T1/2 cells in the interstitial space of a fibrin gel and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in the vascular network via a single lumenal injection (scale bar, 1 mm). Reprinted with permission from Miller et al. [58]. Copyright 2012 by Nature Publishing Group. (c) 3D printer setup that uses syringe tools to load different hydrogels, which are crosslinked during printing by a UV–LED array. Printing inside an autoclaved bag generates sterile scaffolds. Reprinted with permission from Hockaday et al. [61]. Copyright 2012 by IOP Publishing. (d) Multimaterial magnetically assisted 3D printing system for heterogeneous composite materials. (i) Direct ink-writing system consisting of multiple dispensers (I), a mixing unit (II), movable head and table (III), a magnet (IV), and a curing unit (V). (ii) Printed object with internal helicoidal staircase with a scale bar of 5 mm. Reprinted with permission from Kokkinis et al. [65]. Copyright 2015 by Nature Publishing Group. (See figure online for color).

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Fig. 3

Basics and advanced techniques of transfer printing. (a) Schematic illustration of the generic process to transfer print solid objects: I, aligning and retrieval of prepared microstructures with a stamp from a donor substrate; II, delivery of the microstructures from the stamp to receiving substrate. Reprinted with permission from Meitl et al. [78]. Copyright 2006 by Nature Publishing Group. (b) Hierarchical microstructure of gecko setae and its application in transfer printing. (I) Schematic of tokay gecko (Gekko gecko). (II–IV) SEMs of rows of setae from a toe (II), a single seta (III), and spatulae (IV). Reprinted with permission from Autumn et al. [81]. Copyright 2000 by Nature Publishing Group. (V) SEM image of elastomeric stamps in microtip designs to control the contact area by collapsing/recovering the four microtips. Reprinted with permission from Kim et al. [83]. Copyright 2010 by National Academy of Sciences. (VI) Directional dependent adhesion to control gripping and releasing. Reprinted with permission from Murphy et al. [89]. Copyright 2009 by John Wiley and Sons. (c) Octopus-inspired smart adhesive pad (I, scale bar of 1 mm) to switch adhesion by reversibly adjusting the internal space and thus the pressure (II), via the actuation of temperature-responsive hydrogel muscles (III; R, radial muscles; M, meridional muscles; C, circular muscles). Reprinted with permission from Lee et al. [94]. Copyright 2016 by John Wiley and Sons. (See figure online for color).

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Fig. 4

Platforms for study of 2D materials. (a) Schematic of the self-release layer (SRL) methodology in combination with a pick-and-place elastomer stamp transferring graphene, in which patterned graphene is first picked up by an elastomeric stamp coated with self-release layer, by etching of growth substrate, followed by removal of self-release layer to release graphene on destination substrate. Reprinted with permission from Song et al. [103]. Copyright 2013 by Nature Publishing Group. (b) Fabrication scheme for ultrathin InAs XOI, and AFM images. (I) A two-step epitaxial transfer process assembles two layers of perpendicularly oriented InAs nanoribbon arrays with 18- and 48-nm thicknesses on a Si/SiO2 substrate (AFM images). (II) Schematic procedure for the assembly of InAs compound semiconductor-on-insulator (XOI), where epitaxially grown, patterned single-crystal InAs nanoribbon arrays are transferred on Si/SiO2 substrates with an elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) slab, by selective wet etch of the underlying AlGaSb layer. Reprinted with permission from Ko et al. [108]. Copyright 2010 by Nature Publishing Group. (c) Schematic of the hexagonal boron nitride (hBN)-encapsulated MoS2 multiterminal device on van der Waals device structure platform for Hall mobility at low temperature (bottom: zoom-in cross-sectional schematic of the metal–graphene–MoS2 contact region). The exploded view shows the individual components in the heterostructure stack. Reprinted with permission from Cui et al. [115]. Copyright 2015 by Nature Publishing Group. (See figure online for color).

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Fig. 5

Design and key applications of a soft cell-culture platform. (a) Cell-culture platform includes top patterned graphene nanoribbons and bottom Au nanomembrane impedance/temperature sensors on a low-modulus PDMS sheet (serpentine-shaped Au electrodes in inset, and expanded view of each element at the bottom). (b) Four key applications of the cell-culture platform: (i) aligning C2C12 myoblasts, (ii) in situ monitoring of proliferation and differentiation, (iii) in vitro evaluating the effects of novel nanomaterials and drugs, and (iv) transfer printing cultured cell sheets onto target sites of animal models in vivo. (a)–(c) Reprinted with permission from Park et al. [129]. Copyright 2015 by American Chemical Society. (See figure online for color).

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Fig. 6

Bio-integrated electronics. (a) Image of a multifunctional epidermal electronic device that integrates antenna, LED, and strain/temperature/electrophysiology sensors, with physical properties matched to the epidermis. Manual mounting of these systems on the skin is directly analogous to that of a temporary transfer tattoo. Reprinted with permission from Kim et al. [140]. Copyright 2011 by The American Association for the Advancement of Science. (b) Exploded-view schematic illustration of the conformal piezoelectric system (top view in the lower-left inset and a cross-sectional view of actuators and sensors in the black dashed region) for clinical and experimental characterization of soft tissue biomechanics. Reprinted with permission from Dagdeviren et al. [147]. Copyright 2015 by Nature Publishing Group. (c) (Left) Protocol to prepare temporary transfer tattoo electrochemical sensors: a, screen printing patterned electrode (in red) on the release agent-coated (olive) base paper (orange); b, applying adhesive sheet (blue) with protective coating (maroon) to the printed electrochemical sensor; c, removing protective sheet (i) to apply the tattoo on the skin (green), followed by dabbing with water (ii) to remove release agent-coated base paper (iii), thereby exposing the adhered sensor pattern to the external environment for remote sensing. The routine in d is for physiological monitoring: removing paper (i) to apply the tattoo pattern on the skin (ii), followed by removing the protective coating (iii). (Right) Various sensor designs on human skin to be subsequently interfaced with a handheld three-electrode potentiostat via pressure contact or even a self-powered micropotentiostat for extended operation. Reprinted with permission from Windmiller et al. [148]. Copyright 2012 by Royal Society of Chemistry. (d) Images of a representative 3D multifunctional integumentary membrane (3D-MIMs) integrated on a Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart for spatiotemporal measurement and stimulation across the entire epicardial surface, with white arrows highlighting various functional sensors in this system (scale bars of 6 mm). Reprinted with permission from Xu et al. [149]. Copyright 2014 by Nature Publishing Group. (See figure online for color).

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Fig. 7

Bio-integrated transient electronics. (a) Image of a proof-of-concept device that integrates Mg resistor, Si diode, Mg/MgO inductor and capacitor, and Si/MgO/Mg transistor on a thin silk substrate. The time sequence images show the dissolution of this device in distilled (DI) water for the first 10 min. Adapted with permission from Hwang et al. [159]. Copyright 2012 by The American Association for the Advancement of Science. (b) Procedures that use the technique of transfer printing to fabricate transient electronic circuits (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor, CMOS) on biodegradable substrates. Fabricated device on a Si carrier substrate (I) is released by dissolving the sacrificial PMMA layer in acetone (II). Retrieval of the released device with a PDMS stamp (III, image of the device on PDMS in the inset) allows removal of the bottom diluted PI (D-PI) layer by reactive ion etching. Transfer printing onto a biodegradable PLGA substrate (IV), followed by another reactive ion etching of the top D-PI layer, completes the process (V). Adapted with permission from Hwang et al. [161]. Copyright 2014 by John Wiley and Sons. (See figure online for color).

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Fig. 8

Layer-by-layer 3D assembly and curvilinear electronics of photovoltaics, LEDs, and hemispherical electronic cameras. (a) Schematic of layer-by-layer 3D heterogeneous integration of four layers of metamaterial on a Si membrane: “U” resonators twisted by 90 deg, gammadions, fishnet, and “I” beam. The size of one unit in this four by four array is ∼2.5 mm. Reprinted with permission from Lee et al. [186]. Copyright 2016 by Nature Publishing Group. (b) Curvilinear GaAs solar modules exploit elastomeric substrate with surface relief to confine strains at the locations of the interconnections and away from the devices, enabling high areal coverage and high level of stretchability. Reprinted with permission from Lee et al. [187]. Copyright 2011 by John Wiley and Sons. (c) Optical images of a deformed array of micro-inorganic LEDs (6 × 6) on the sharp tip of a pencil, with white arrows indicating the direction of stretching. Reprinted with permission from Kim et al. [191]. Copyright 2010 by Nature Publishing Group. (d) Photograph of a hemispherical electronic eye camera based on single-crystalline silicon optoelectronics. Integration with a transparent hemispherical cap with a simple, single-component image lens, such camera is capable of high-resolution imaging with low aberrations. Reprinted with permission from Ko et al. [152]. Copyright 2008 by Nature Publishing Group. (e) Schematic illustration of a hemispherical electronic eye camera with tunable lens (upper) and tunable detector (lower) modules. Fluid pressure is used to dynamically adjust the radii of curvature in both lens and detector sheet. Reprinted with permission from Jung et al. [193]. Copyright 2011 by National Academy of Sciences. (f) A digital camera taking the form of an apposition compound eye is elastically transformed from a planar layout on which they are fabricated to a hemispherical shape through hydraulic actuation. Reprinted with permission from Song et al. [195]. Copyright 2013 by National Academy of Sciences. (See figure online for color).

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Fig. 9

Mechanical guided assembly of 3D structures. (a) Finite element analysis shows the process to assemble 3D single-crystal Si conical helices from 2D filamentary serpentine ribbons bonded at selected points (red dots) to a prestretched slab of silicone elastomer. Relaxing the strain in the elastomer induces compressive forces, which lead to coordinated out-of-plane motions in the Si to form 3D structures (SEM images of an experimental result at the lower right inset). Reprinted with permission from Xu et al. [196]. Copyright 2015 by The American Association for the Advancement of Science. Representative examples that demonstrate deterministic assembly of 3D mesostructures by introducing (b) symmetric cuts (kirigami) along the circumferential directions in 2D nanomembranes (reprinted with permission from Zhang et al. [197]. Copyright 2015 by National Academy of Sciences), (c) spatial thickness gradient to create creases (gray color denotes the creases with reduced thickness) (reprinted with permission from Yan et al. [198]. Copyright 2016 by John Wiley and Sons), (d) releasable, multilayer 2D precursors to form a 3D trilayer nested Si cages (SEM image of the final configuration, colorized) (reprinted with permission from Yan et al. [199]. Copyright 2016 by The American Association for the Advancement of Science), and (e) combined use of spatial thickness gradient and nested structure to form a plastic structure in a closed box shape from biaxial prestrain in the substrate (reprinted with permission from Yan et al. [199]. Copyright 2016 by The American Association for the Advancement of Science). (See figure online for color).

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Fig. 10

Roll-to-roll manufacturing, 3D bioprinting, and direct imprinting. (a) Images of the roll-to-roll apparatus for transfer printing (top: side view, bottom: top view). Reprinted with permission from Jang et al. [202]. Copyright 2016 by AIP Publishing. (b) 3D interweaving of biology and electronics via additive manufacturing in a bionic ear created from functional materials such as biological (chondrocytes), structural (silicone), and electronic (AgNP infused silicone) in a 3D printer. Reprinted with permission from Mannoor et al. [62]. Copyright 2013 by American Chemical Society. (c) Metal-assisted chemical etching transforms the shape of the stamping onto porous Si with sub-20 nm resolution. Reprinted with permission from Azeredo et al. [208]. Copyright 2016 by John Wiley and Sons.

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