0
Research Papers

Modified Constitutive Creep Laws With Micromechanical Modeling of Pb-Free Solder Alloys

[+] Author and Article Information
Joel Thambi

Innovation Center for Advanced Electronics,
Continental Automotive GmbH,
Regensburg 93055, Germany
e-mails: luthersjoel@gmail.com;
joel.thambi@sabic.com

Andreas Schiessl

Innovation Center for Advanced Electronics,
Continental Automotive GmbH,
Regensburg 93055, Germany
e-mail: andreas.schiessl@continental-corporation.com

Manuela Waltz

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt,
Esplanade 10,
Ingolstadt 85049, Germany
e-mail: Manuela.Waltz@thi.de

Klaus-Dieter Lang

Faculty of Electrical Engineering and
Computer Science,
Technische Universität Berlin,
Berlin 10623, Germany
e-mail: klaus-dieter.lang@izm.fraunhofer.de

Ulrich Tetzlaff

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt,
Esplanade 10,
Ingolstadt 85049, Germany
e-mail: Ulrich.Tetzlaff@thi.de

1Present address: Application Technology, SABIC, Plasticslaan 1, Bergen Op Zoom 4612 PX, The Netherlands.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received May 18, 2016; final manuscript received January 3, 2017; published online June 14, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Toru Ikeda.

J. Electron. Packag 139(3), 031002 (Jun 14, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: EP-16-1064; doi: 10.1115/1.4035850 History: Received May 18, 2016; Revised January 03, 2017

This paper explicitly establishes a modified creep model of a Sn–3.8Ag–0.7Cu alloy using a physical-based micromechanical modeling technique. Through experimentation and reformulation, steady-state creep behavior is analyzed with minimum strain rates for different temperatures 35 °C, 80 °C, and 125 °C. The new modified physical creep model is proposed, by understanding the respective precipitate strengthened deformation mechanism, seeing the dependency of the activation energy over the temperature along with stress and, finally, by integrating the subgrain-size dependency λss. The new model is found to accurately model the creep behavior of lead-free solder alloy by combining the physical state variables. The features of the creep model can be explored further by changing the physical variable such as subgrain size to establish a structure–property relationship for a better solder joint reliability performance.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Schubert, A. , Dudek, R. , Doring, R. , Walter, H. , Auerswald, E. , Gollhardt, A. , and Michel, B. , 2002, “ Thermo-Mechanical Reliability of Lead-Free Solder Interconnects,” 8th International Advanced Packaging Materials Symposium (APMS), Braselton, GA, Mar. 3–6, pp. 90–96.
Li, X. , and Zhisheng, W. , 2007, “ Thermo-Fatigue Life Evaluation of SnAgCu Solder Joints in Flip Chip Assemblies,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 183(1), pp. 6–12. [CrossRef]
Dudek, R. , Walter, H. , Doering, R. , and Michel, B. , 2004, “ Thermal Fatigue Modelling for SnAgCu and SnPb Solder Joints,” 5th International Conference on Thermal and Mechanical Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems (EuroSimE), Brussels, Belgium, May 10–12, pp. 557–564.
Wiese, S. , and Wolter, K.-J. , 2004, “ Microstructure and Creep Behavior of Eutectic SnAg and SnAgCu Solders,” Microelectron. Reliab., 44(12), pp. 1923–1931. [CrossRef]
Metasch, R. , Schwerz, R. , Roellig, M. , Kabakchiev, A. , Metais, B. , Ratchev, R. , and Wolter, K.-J. , 2015, “ Experimental Investigation on Microstructural Influence Towards Visco-Plastic Mechanical Properties of Sn-Based Solder Alloy for Material Modelling in Finite Element Simulations,” 16th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems (EuroSimE), Budapest, Hungary, Apr. 19–22, pp. 1–8.
Shi, X. Q. , Wang, Z. P. , Zhou, W. , Pang, H. L. J. , and Yang, Q. J. , 2002, “ A New Creep Constitutive Model for Eutectic Solder Alloy,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 124(2) p. 85. [CrossRef]
Mei, Z. , Morris, J. W. , Shine, M. C. , and Summers, T. S. E. , 1991, “ Effects of Cooling Rate on Mechanical Properties of Near-Eutectic Tin-Lead Solder Joints,” J. Electron. Mater., 20(10), pp. 599–608. [CrossRef]
Ranieri, J. P. , Frederick, S. L. , and Donald, H. A. , 1995, “ Plastic Constraint of Large Aspect Ratio Solder Joints,” J. Electron. Mater., 24(10), pp. 1419–1423. [CrossRef]
Frear, D. , Grivas, D. , and Morris, J. W. , 1988, “ A Microstructural Study of the Thermal Fatigue Failures of 60Sn-40Pb Solder Joints,” J. Electron. Mater., 17(2), pp. 171–180. [CrossRef]
Naumenko, K. , and Holm, A. , 2007, Modeling of Creep for Structural Analysis ( Foundations of Engineering Mechanics), Springer, Berlin.
Blum, W. , 2001, “ Creep of Crystalline Materials: Experimental Basis, Mechanisms and Models,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 319–321, pp. 8–15. [CrossRef]
Ashby, M. F. , 1972, “ A First Report on Deformation-Mechanism Maps,” Acta Metall., 20(7), pp. 887–897. [CrossRef]
Kassner, M. E. , 2008, “ Introduction,” Fundamentals of Creep in Metals and Alloys, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Metais, B. , Kabakchiev, A. , Maniar, Y. , Guyenot, M. , Metasch, R. , Roellig, M. , Rettenmeier, P. , Buhl, P. , and Weihe, S. , 2015, “ A Viscoplastic-Fatigue-Creep Damage Model for Tin-Based Solder Alloy,” 16th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems (EuroSimE), Budapest, Hungary, Apr. 19–22, pp. 1–5.
Kerr, M. , and Chawla, N. , 2004, “ Creep Deformation Behavior of Sn–3.5Ag Solder/Cu Couple at Small Length Scales,” Acta Mater., 52(15), pp. 4527–4535. [CrossRef]
Orowan, E. , 1948, “ Internal Stresses in Metals and Alloys,” Nature, 161(4080), pp. 70–71. [CrossRef]
Lagneborg, R. , and Bergman, B. , 1976, “ The Stress/Creep Rate Behavior of Precipitation-Hardened Alloys,” Met. Sci., 10(1), pp. 20–28. [CrossRef]
Blum, W. , Dvorak, J. , Kral, P. , Eisenlohr, P. , and Sklenicka, V. , 2015, “ Correct Interpretation of Creep Rates—A Case Study of Cu,” J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 31(11), pp. 1065–1068. [CrossRef]
Agamennone, R. , Blum, W. , Gupta, C. , and Chakravartty, J. K. , 2006, “ Evolution of Microstructure and Deformation Resistance in Creep of Tempered Martensitic 9–12%Cr–2%W–5%Co Steels,” Acta Mater., 54(11), pp. 3003–3014. [CrossRef]
Han, Y. D. , Jing, H. Y. , Nai, S. M. L. , Tan, C. M. , Wei, J. , Xu, L. Y. , and Zhang, S. R. , 2008, “ A New Creep Model for SnAgCu Lead-Free Composite Solders: Incorporating Back Stress,” 10th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference (EPTC), Singapore, Dec. 9–12, pp. 689–695.
Gong, J. , Changqing, L. , Paul, P. C. , and Vadim, V. S. , 2006, “ Modelling of Ag-3Sn Coarsening and Its Effect on Creep of Sn–Ag Eutectics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 427(1–2), pp. 60–68. [CrossRef]
Suh, S. H. , Cohen, J. B. , and Weertman, J. , 1983, “ X-Ray Diffraction Study of Subgrain Misorientation During High Temperature Creep of Tin Single Crystals,” Metall. Trans. A, 14(1), pp. 117–126. [CrossRef]
Kocks, U. F. , Argon, A. S. , and Ashby, M. F. , 1974, Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Slip Progress in Material Science, Pergamon Press, New York.
Pharr, G. M. , 1981, “ Some Observations on the Relation Between Dislocation Substructure and Power Law Breakdown in Creep,” Scr. Metall., 15(7), pp. 713–717. [CrossRef]
Terashima, S. , Keiko, T. , Masako, N. , and Masamoto, T. , 2004, “ Recrystallization of Sn Grains Due to Thermal Strain in Sn-1.2Ag-0.5Cu-0.05Ni Solder,” Mater. Trans., 45(4), pp. 1383–1390. [CrossRef]
Chen, H. , Jing, H. , and Mingyu, L. , 2011, “ Localized Recrystallization Induced by Subgrain Rotation in Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu Ball Grid Array Solder Interconnects During Thermal Cycling,” J. Electron. Mater., 40(12), pp. 2470–2479. [CrossRef]
Kanchanomai, C. , Miyashita, Y. , Mutoh, Y. , and Mannan, S. L. , 2003, “ Influence of Frequency on Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Pb-Free Solder 96.5Sn–3.5Ag,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 345(1–2), pp. 90–98. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) View of the cast die after solidification of solder material and (b) manufactured creep specimen taken out from the aluminum die

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Creep behavior of precipitate strengthened materials (only schematics). The stress is given in units of the classical Orowan stress [16].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

SEM micrographs showing microstructure of the solder alloy with the intermetallic (Ag-3Sn and Cu-6Sn-5) and the β-Sn matrix

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Distribution of Ag-3Sn intermetallic precipitates analyzed for the volume fraction studies from eutectic region, from pre-experimental selected samples

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Threshold line calculated from Table 2 incorporated into Norton plot to differentiate the low stress and HSR

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

(a) Stress exponent of LSR and HSR showing steady relationship temperature and (b) stress exponent plotted versus σ/RT for different temperatures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Isostress lines plotted for creep strain versus reciprocal of temperature for the activation energy Q calculation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Activation energy Q plotted against the normalized stress for high-temperature range and low-temperature range

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Investigations of the substructure formation of a creep specimen: (a) EBSD images showing subgrain distribution on a necking region, (b) EBCC image showing subgrain between dendrites on non-necking region, and (c) corresponding measurement of subgrain size measured qualitatively from random samples

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Creep equation with subgrain-size state variable: (a) comparison on creep strain rate obtained from the experimental results optimized with the new modified creep model and (b) predicted versus the actual creep strain rate

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In