Review Article

Moisture Ingress, Behavior, and Prediction Inside Semiconductor Packaging: A Review

[+] Author and Article Information
Bongtae Han

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742
e-mail: bthan@umd.edu

Dae-Suk Kim

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received September 17, 2016; final manuscript received December 19, 2016; published online January 16, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Eric Wong.

J. Electron. Packag 139(1), 010802 (Jan 16, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: EP-16-1107; doi: 10.1115/1.4035598 History: Received September 17, 2016; Revised December 19, 2016

Reliability issues associated with moisture have become increasingly important as advanced electronic devices are nowhere more evident than in portable electronic products. The transition to the Pb-free solders, which require higher reflow temperature, makes the problem further exacerbated. Moisture absorbed into semiconductor packages can initiate many failure mechanisms, in particular interfacial delamination, degradation of adhesion strength, etc. The absorbed moisture can also result in catastrophic crack propagation during reflow process, the well-known phenomenon called popcorning. High vapor pressure inside pre-existing voids at material interfaces is known to be a dominant driving force of this phenomenon. This paper reviews various existing mechanisms of water accumulation inside voids. The procedures to obtain the critical hygroscopic properties are described. Advanced numerical modeling schemes to analyze the moisture diffusion phenomenon are followed with selected examples.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.



Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of 1D moisture diffusion

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of moisture concentration at a bimaterial interface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Weight gain histories of: (a) EMC A and (b) EMC B, obtained at three temperatures and the humidity environment of 75%RH. Bullets and solid lines indicate the measurement data and corresponding Fickian curves, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Diffusivity versus temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Solubility versus temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Solubility versus temperature obtained from four different packaging materials

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Fickian and non-Fickian solutions are compared with experimental data of EMC A obtained at 180 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Overview of CHS measurement procedure using moiré interferometry

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Moiré fringe patterns: (a) null fields obtained from the reference sample; fringe patterns of the test sample at time intervals of (b) zero and (c) 40 h

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Hygroscopic strain versus moisture content (%) obtained from moiré fringes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Saturated concentration of various packaging polymers versus relative humidity

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Implementation of normalized analogy: (a) bimaterial specimen subjected to an isothermal loading condition and (b) distribution of moisture concentration at t = 3600 s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

(a) Schematic diagram of simulated geometry and boundary condition for the anisothermal bimaterial case and (b) moisture concentrations at t = 3600 s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Schematic illustration of: (a) cross section of MEMS devices; and (b) “original” model and (c) effective volume model in a simplified 1D configuration [65]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Normalized pressure inside cavity as a junction of normalized time




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In