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Review Article

Moisture Ingress, Behavior, and Prediction Inside Semiconductor Packaging: A Review

[+] Author and Article Information
Bongtae Han

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742
e-mail: bthan@umd.edu

Dae-Suk Kim

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received September 17, 2016; final manuscript received December 19, 2016; published online January 16, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Eric Wong.

J. Electron. Packag 139(1), 010802 (Jan 16, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: EP-16-1107; doi: 10.1115/1.4035598 History: Received September 17, 2016; Revised December 19, 2016

Reliability issues associated with moisture have become increasingly important as advanced electronic devices are nowhere more evident than in portable electronic products. The transition to the Pb-free solders, which require higher reflow temperature, makes the problem further exacerbated. Moisture absorbed into semiconductor packages can initiate many failure mechanisms, in particular interfacial delamination, degradation of adhesion strength, etc. The absorbed moisture can also result in catastrophic crack propagation during reflow process, the well-known phenomenon called popcorning. High vapor pressure inside pre-existing voids at material interfaces is known to be a dominant driving force of this phenomenon. This paper reviews various existing mechanisms of water accumulation inside voids. The procedures to obtain the critical hygroscopic properties are described. Advanced numerical modeling schemes to analyze the moisture diffusion phenomenon are followed with selected examples.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of 1D moisture diffusion

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Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of moisture concentration at a bimaterial interface

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Fig. 3

Weight gain histories of: (a) EMC A and (b) EMC B, obtained at three temperatures and the humidity environment of 75%RH. Bullets and solid lines indicate the measurement data and corresponding Fickian curves, respectively.

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Fig. 4

Diffusivity versus temperature

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Fig. 5

Solubility versus temperature

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Fig. 6

Solubility versus temperature obtained from four different packaging materials

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Fig. 7

Fickian and non-Fickian solutions are compared with experimental data of EMC A obtained at 180 °C

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Fig. 8

Overview of CHS measurement procedure using moiré interferometry

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Fig. 9

Moiré fringe patterns: (a) null fields obtained from the reference sample; fringe patterns of the test sample at time intervals of (b) zero and (c) 40 h

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Fig. 10

Hygroscopic strain versus moisture content (%) obtained from moiré fringes

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Fig. 11

Saturated concentration of various packaging polymers versus relative humidity

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Fig. 12

Implementation of normalized analogy: (a) bimaterial specimen subjected to an isothermal loading condition and (b) distribution of moisture concentration at t = 3600 s

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Fig. 13

(a) Schematic diagram of simulated geometry and boundary condition for the anisothermal bimaterial case and (b) moisture concentrations at t = 3600 s

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Fig. 14

Schematic illustration of: (a) cross section of MEMS devices; and (b) “original” model and (c) effective volume model in a simplified 1D configuration [65]

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Fig. 15

Normalized pressure inside cavity as a junction of normalized time

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