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Research Papers

Measurement of Air Flow Rate Through Perforated Floor Tiles in a Raised Floor Data Center

[+] Author and Article Information
Vaibhav K. Arghode

George W. Woodruff School of
Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: vaibhav.arghode@gmail.com

Taegyu Kang, Yogendra Joshi

George W. Woodruff School of
Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332

Wally Phelps, Murray Michaels

Degree Controls Inc.,
Milford, NH 03055

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received October 16, 2015; final manuscript received November 16, 2016; published online January 10, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Pradip Dutta.

J. Electron. Packag 139(1), 011007 (Jan 10, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: EP-15-1115; doi: 10.1115/1.4035596 History: Received October 16, 2015; Revised November 16, 2016

In a raised floor data center, cold air from a pressurized subfloor plenum reaches the data center room space through perforated floor tiles. Presently, commercial tool “Flow Hood” is used to measure the tile air flow rate. Here, we will discuss the operating principle and the shortcomings of the commercial tool and introduce two other tile air flow rate measurement tools. The first tool has an array of thermal anemometers (named as “Anemometric Tool”), and the second tool uses the principle of temperature rise across a known heat load to measure the tile air flow rate (named as “Calorimetric Tool”). The performance of the tools is discussed for different types of tiles for a wide range of tile air flow rates. It is found that the proposed tools result in lower uncertainty and work better for high porosity tiles, as compared to the commercial tool.

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References

Joshi, Y. , and Kumar, P. , 2012, Energy Efficient Thermal Management of Data Centers, Springer, New York.
Arghode, V. K. and Joshi, Y. , 2016, Air Flow Management in Raised Floor Data Centers, Springer Briefs in Applied Sciences and Technology, Cham, Switzerland.
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Schmidt, R. , Karki, K. , and Patankar, S. , 2004, “ Raised-Floor Data Center: Perforated Tile Flow Rates for Various Tile Layouts,” IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), Las Vegas, NV, June 1–4, pp. 1–8.
Alissa, H. A. , Nemati, K. , Sammakia, B. , Ghose, K. , Seymour, M. , and Schmidt, R. , 2015, “ Innovative Approaches of Experimentally Guided CFD Modeling for Data Centers,” IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (Semi-Therm), San Jose, CA, Mar. 15–19, pp. 1–9.
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Alkharabsheh, S. A. , Sammakia, B. G. , and Shrivastava, S. K. , 2015, “ Experimentally Validated Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for a Data Center With Cold Aisle Containment,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 137(2), p. 021010. [CrossRef]
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TSI Incorporated, 2014, Shoreview, MN, accessed Mar. 10, 2014, www.tsi.com
Arghode, V. K. , Sundaralingam, V. , Joshi, Y. , and Phelps, W. , 2013, “ Thermal Characteristics of Open and Contained Data Center Cold Aisle,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 135(6), p. 061901. [CrossRef]
Arghode, V. K. , and Joshi, Y. , 2015, “ Experimental Investigation of Air Flow Through a Perforated Tile in a Raised-Floor Data Center,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 137(1), p. 011011. [CrossRef]
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Test setup at the Data Center Laboratory, Georgia Institute of Technology: (a) Representation of the Data Center Laboratory at Georgia-Tech and (b) test setup (all racks are powered off)

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Fig. 2

Different tiles investigated

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Fig. 3

Commercial tile air flow rate measurement tool Flow Hood: (a) Photograph of the Flow Hood and (b) schematic of the Flow Hood

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Fig. 4

Operating principle for Flow Hood: (a) Representation of air flow system for three different flow resistances. Knowns: Qt&o (displayed), Qt&c (not displayed), Ko (9.5 [17]), Kc (19.9 (Appendix)). Unknowns: Qt (displayed), (Pp − Pm), Kt; (b) formulation of the air flow system for three different flow resistances; and (c) variables associated with the tile air flow rate measurement system.

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Fig. 5

Tool resistance compensation required for the commercial tool. Ko taken from Ref. [17]. (a) Tool resistance compensation variation (Ko measured in Ref. [17]) and (b) tile pressure loss factor versus tile porosity [18].

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Fig. 6

Tool resistance compensation sensitivity with measured flow ratio: (a) Measured flow ratio variation and (b) tool resistance compensation versus measured flow ratio

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Fig. 7

Anemometric tile air flow rate measurement tool: (a) Photograph of the Anemometric Tool and (b) schematic of the Anemometric Tool

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Fig. 8

Tool resistance compensation required for Anemometric Tool

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Fig. 9

Experimental evaluation of the Anemometric Tool: (a) Measured tile air flow rates and (b) measurement uncertainty

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Fig. 10

Air flow rate measurement for high porosity tile: (a) Measured tile air flow rates and (b) uncertainty for high porosity tile

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Fig. 11

Experimental evaluation of the Anemometric Tool: (a) Photograph of the Calorimetric Tool and (b) schematic of the Calorimetric Tool

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Fig. 12

Tool resistance compensation for the Calorimetric Tool

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Fig. 13

Experimental evaluation of the Calorimetric Tool: (a) Measured tile air flow rates and (b) uncertainty estimation

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Fig. 14

Estimation of Kc (Qt&c and Qt&o were measured using the Anemometric Tool, Ko = 9.5 [17] and Kt = 24.7 [17]): (a) Setup to estimate Kc and (b) formula to obtain Kc

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