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Research Papers

Growth Kinetics of Intermetallic Compounds Between Sn and Fe Liquid–Solid Reaction Couples

[+] Author and Article Information
Shou-Jen Hsu

Electrical Engineering and Computer Science,
Materials and Manufacturing Technology,
University of California,
Irvine, CA 92697-2660
e-mail: shoujenh@uci.edu

Chin C. Lee

Electrical Engineering and Computer Science,
Materials and Manufacturing Technology,
University of California,
Irvine, CA 92697-2660

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received August 9, 2016; final manuscript received September 27, 2016; published online October 10, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Toru Ikeda.

J. Electron. Packag 138(4), 041006 (Oct 10, 2016) (5 pages) Paper No: EP-16-1095; doi: 10.1115/1.4034842 History: Received August 09, 2016; Revised September 27, 2016

Growth behavior of the intermetallic compound (IMC), FeSn2, was investigated in the liquid Sn/solid Fe reaction couple over the annealing temperatures from 250 °C to 400 °C. Low-carbon steel AISI 1018 was chosen to make Fe samples. The morphology and thickness of the IMC formed between Sn and Fe were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to confirm that the IMC is FeSn2. The growth kinetics of FeSn2 was modeled by parabolic law and empirical power law. Based on the models, the growth constants, the activation energy, and the time exponents were established at different annealing temperatures. It was found that the time exponent values obtained by fitting with empirical power law deviate from 0.5, meaning that volume (bulk) diffusion is not the only rate-controlling process in the liquid Sn/solid Fe reaction couple. Also, a variation in the time exponent values is indicative that the growth behavior is correlated with grain size growth and irregular grain morphology at different annealing stages. The results of this research show that AISI 1018 steel can readily react with Sn to form IMC on the interface. This is an essential requirement of soldering action using Sn-rich solders.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Cross section SEM micrographs of the interfacial layers between Sn solder and Fe metal substrates annealed at 250 °C for (a) 2 h, (b) 12 h, (c) 50 h, and (d) 200 h

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Fig. 2

Cross section SEM micrographs of the interfacial layers between Sn solder and Fe metal substrates annealed at 335 °C for (a) 2 h, (b) 12 h, (c) 50 h, and (d) 100 h

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Fig. 3

Cross section SEM micrographs of the interfacial layers between Sn solder and Fe metal substrates annealed at 400 °C for (a) 0.5 h, (b) 2 h, (c) 12 h, and (d) 25 h

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Fig. 4

XRD pattern obtained from the top surface of the etched sample reacted at 400 °C for 25 h

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Fig. 5

(a) Variation in the average thickness of the IMC with annealing time at 250 °C, 335 °C, and 400 °C and (b) the curves represent the fits of data by regression with the equation d = ktn

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Fig. 6

Variation in the average thickness of the IMC as a function of the square root of annealing time at 250 °C, 335 °C, and 400 °C. The straight lines represent fits of the data by linear regression.

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Fig. 7

Arrhenius plot for evaluating the activation energy for the growth of IMC. The straight line represents a fit of the data by linear regression.

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