The sandwich structure Cu/Sn/Cu solder joints with different thicknesses of the solder layers (δ) are fabricated using a reflow solder method. The microstructure and composition of the solder joints are observed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show that the thickness of intermetallic compound (IMC) and Cu concentration in the solder layers increase with the decrease of δ after reflow. During thermal aging, the thickness of IMC does not increase according to the parabolic rule with the increase of aging time; the solder joint thickness affects markedly the growth rate of IMC layer. At the beginning of thermal aging, the growth rate of IMC in the thinner solder joints (δ ≤ 25 μm) is higher than that in the thicker ones (δ ≥ 30 μm). The growth rate of IMC (δ ≤ 25 μm) decreases in the thinner solder joints, while increases in the thicker solder joints (δ ≥ 40 μm) and is nearly invariable when the δ equals to 30 μm with aging time extending. The growth rate of IMC increases first and then decreases after reaching a peak value with the increase of δ in the later stage during aging. The main control element for IMC growth transfers from Cu to Sn with the reduction of size.