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Research Papers

Modeling of a Smart Heat Pump Made of Laminated Thermoelectric and Electrocaloric Materials

[+] Author and Article Information
Dudong Feng

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Carnegie Mellon University,
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
e-mail: fengdudong@gmail.com

Shi-Chune Yao

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Carnegie Mellon University,
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
e-mail: scyao@cmu.edu

Tian Zhang

Department of Electrical Engineering,
Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: txz908@psu.edu

Qiming Zhang

Department of Electrical Engineering,
Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: qxz1@psu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received July 25, 2016; final manuscript received September 15, 2016; published online October 6, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Kaushik Mysore.

J. Electron. Packag 138(4), 041004 (Oct 06, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: EP-16-1089; doi: 10.1115/1.4034751 History: Received July 25, 2016; Revised September 15, 2016

In this study, a smart heat pump, which could be used for the cooling of electronics, made of laminated structure of thermoelectric (TE) and electrocaloric (EC) materials, is studied. A simple arrangement of two TE layers sandwiched with one EC layer is modeled. This smart heat pump utilized the newly developed EC materials of giant adiabatic temperature change and the TE materials of high figure of merit. The system has the advantages of no moving parts, made of solid state, operable over large working temperature difference, and can be formed into very small size. The operation of the device is numerically modeled considering the three major parametric effects: EC operation as a function of time, electric current applied on TE, and temperature difference between the hot and cold sinks. The results on coefficient of performance (COP) and heat flow per unit area are discussed. This study is performed as an early attempt of analyzing the basic physical features of TE–EC–TE laminated structure heat pump and extends the understanding by further discussing the tradeoff between lower COP and larger overall temperature difference coverage in the TE/EC hybrid heat pump system with multilaminated structure.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Comparison of electrocaloric cooling cycle (bottom) with that of the traditional vapor compression cooling cycle (top)

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Fig. 2

Schematic laminated configuration of the heat pump system

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Fig. 3

TE elements layout on the EC block, and geometric dimension of the heat pump system (mm)

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Fig. 4

Configuration and geometric dimension of a single TE element (mm)

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Fig. 5

Four working stages of heat pump system: (a) cold side pumping with EC working, (b) cold side pumping, (c) hot side pumping with EC working, and (d) hot side pumping

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Fig. 6

Heat flux of cold side TE elements under mesh analysis (0.02 mm, 0.05 mm, and 0.1 mm)

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Fig. 7

Comparison of insulation performance of cold side TE elements between the use of linear and quadratic solution of insulation current

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Fig. 8

COP and cooling capacity at various electric pumping current (Note: Two simulation cases are reported by applying 6 °C and 9 °C electric pumping current, which represents, respectively, the corresponding electric current to insulate 6 °C and 9 °C temperature difference across the TE)

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Fig. 9

Cosine shape and square shape wave functions of energy input to EC block, with same wave duration of 25 ms

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Fig. 10

Square wave functions with different wave durations (25 ms, 50 ms, and 75 ms)

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Fig. 11

Comparison of COP between the heat pump systems applied with cosine shape wave function and square shape wave function

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Fig. 12

Comparison of cooling capacity between the heat pump systems applied with cosine shape wave function and square shape wave function

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Fig. 13

Temperature profile of the center line in Z-direction at five significant time points in the cycle under 25 ms square shape wave function and 6 °C electric pumping current

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Fig. 14

COP and cooling capacity at various operating conditions with same 6 °C electric pumping current applied

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Fig. 15

Schematic configuration of multilaminated TE/EC hybrid heat pump (mm)

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Fig. 16

Four working stages for multilaminated TE/EC hybrid heat pump

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