0
Research Papers

Surface and Indoor Temperature Effects on User Thermal Responses to Holding a Simulated Tablet Computer

[+] Author and Article Information
Han Zhang, Alan Hedge

Department of Design and
Environmental Analysis,
Cornell University,
Ithaca, NY 14853

Beiyuan Guo

State Key Laboratory of Rail Traffic
Control and Safety,
Beijing Jiaotong University,
Beijing, China 100044
e-mail: byguo@bjtu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received January 4, 2016; final manuscript received April 13, 2016; published online May 16, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Ashish Gupta.

J. Electron. Packag 138(3), 031003 (May 16, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: EP-16-1003; doi: 10.1115/1.4033415 History: Received January 04, 2016; Revised April 13, 2016

A series of experiments was conducted to investigate participant thermal responses to different surface temperatures, from 34 to 44 °C, for a simulated tablet computer in different ambient temperatures (13 °C, 23 °C, and 33 °C). Two subjective measures, thermal sensations and thermal comfort, were reported by the participants. Within the same ambient temperature, participants' thermal sensation and discomfort scores were positively correlated with the increase of surface temperature (higher surface temperatures gave warmer sensations). Thermal comfort also decreases with the increase of surface temperature in the tested range. In addition, ambient temperature moderated the effect of surface temperature on participants' thermal sensation scores. The higher surface temperature of 44 °C was rated warmer at 33 °C than 13 °C, but lower surface temperatures (34–38 °C) were rated less warm at 33 °C than 13 °C. On the other hand, all the surface temperatures were perceived less uncomfortable in an environment at 13 °C environment than at 33 °C. The findings can be used to set limits for future tablet computer heat dissipation designs to improve user's thermal experiences.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Zickuhr, K. , and Rainie, L. , 2014, “ E-Reading Rises as Device Ownership Jumps,” Pew Internet Research Project, Pew Research Center, Washington, DC, http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/01/16/ereading-rises-as-device-ownership-jumps/
Chattejee, S. , 2014, “ New iPad 3 Overheating Problem: Heat Tests Suggest Android Rivals Nearly As Hot,” International Business Times, New York, retrieved Aug. 22, 2014, http://www.ibtimes.com/newipad-3-overheating-problem-heat-tests-suggest-android-rivals-nearly-hot-431016
Tapellini, D. L. , 2012, “ Our Test Finds New iPad Hits 116 Degrees While Running Games,” Consumer Reports, Yonkers, NY, retrieved Aug. 22, 2014, http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/news/2012/03/our-test-finds-new-ipad-hits-116-degrees-while-running-games/index.htm
Giraldi, S. , Diettrich, F. , Abbage, K. T. , Carvalho, V. de O. , and Marinoni, L. P. , 2011, “ Erythema Ab Igne Induced by a Laptop Computer in an Adolescent,” An. Bras. Dermatol., 86(1), pp. 128–130. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Dela Rosa, K. , and Satter, E. K. , 2012, “ Erythematous Patches on the Chest-Quiz Case,” Arch. Dermatol., 148(1), p. 113. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Riahi, R. R. , and Cohen, P. R. , 2012, “ Laptop-Induced Erythema Ab Igne: Report and Review of Literature,” Dermatol. Online J., 18(6), epub.
BSI, 1983, “ Medical Information on Human Reaction to Skin Contact With Hot Surfaces,” British Standards Institute, London, BS Standard No. PD 6504.
ISO, 2006, “ Ergonomics of the Thermal Environment – Methods for the Assessment of Human Responses to Contact With Surfaces – Part 1: Hot surfaces,” International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, Standard No. ISO 13732-1.
ASTM, 2014, “ Standard Guide for Heated System Surface Conditions that Produce Contact Burn Injuries,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, Standard No. ASTM C1055-03.
Parsons, K. , 2014, Human Thermal Environments: The Effects of Hot, Moderate, and Cold Environments on Human Health, Comfort, and Performance, CRC Press, Boca Raton.
ISO/TS, 2001, “ Ergonomics of the Thermal Environment – Methods for the Assessment of Human Responses to Contact With Surfaces—Part 2: Human Contact With Surfaces at Moderate Temperature,” International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, Standard No. ISO/TS 13732-2.
Zhang, H. , Hedge, A. , and Guo, B. , “ User Thermal Response to Simulated Tablet Computer Surface,” ASME Paper No. IPACK2015-48787.
Hirosawa, I. , Dodo, H. , Hosokawa, M. , Watanabe, S. , Nishiyama, K. , and Fukuchi, Y. , 1984, “ Physiological Variations of Warm and Cool Sense With Shift of Environmental Temperature,” Int. J. Neurosci., 24(3–4), pp. 281–288. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Toibana, N. , Sakakibara, H. , Hirata, M. , Kondo, T. , and Toyoshima, H. , 2000, “ Thermal Perception Threshold Testing for the Evaluation of Small Sensory Nerve Fiber Injury in Patients With Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome,” Ind. Health, 38(4), pp. 366–371. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Harju, E.-L. , 2002,” Cold and Warmth Perception Mapped for Age, Gender, and Body Area,” Somatosens. Motor Res., 19(1), pp. 61–75. [CrossRef]
Kelly, K. G. , Cook, T. , and Miroslav Backonja, M. , 2005, “ Pain Ratings at the Thresholds are Necessary for Interpretation of Quantitative Sensory Testing,” Muscle Nerve, 32(2), pp. 179–184. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Dyck, P. J. , Zimmerman, I. , Gillen, D. A. , Johnson, D. , Karnes, J. L. , and O'Brien, P. C. , 1993, “ Cool, Warm, and Heat Pain Detection Thresholds Testing Methods and Inferences About Anatomic Distribution of Receptors,” Neurology, 43(8), pp. 1500–1508. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Pertovaara, A. , Kauppila, T. , and Hämäläinen, M. M. , 1996, “ Influence of Skin Temperature on Heat Pain Threshold in Humans,” Exp. Brain Res., 107(3), pp. 497–503. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Hagander, L. G. , Midani, H. A. , Kuskowski, M. A. , and Parry, G. J. G. , 2000, “ Quantitative Sensory Testing: Effect of Site and Skin Temperature on Thermal Thresholds,” Clin. Neurophysiol., 111(1), pp. 17–22. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Meh, D. , and Denišlič, M. , 1994, “ Quantitative Assessment of Thermal and Pain Sensitivity,” J. Neurol. Sci., 127(2), pp. 164–169. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Strigo, I . A. , Carli, F. , and Bushnell, M. C. , 2000, “ Effect of Ambient Temperature on Human Pain and Temperature Perception,” Anesthesiology, 92(3), pp. 699–707. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Halvey, M. , Wilson, G. , Brewster, S. , and Hughes, S. , 2012, “ Baby It's Cold Outside: The Influence of Ambient Temperature and Humidity on Thermal Feedback,” SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '12), Austin, TX, May 5–10, ACM, New York, pp. 715–724.
Oi, H. , Tabata, K. , Naka, Y. , Takeda, A. , and Tochihara, Y. , 2012, “ Effects of Heated Seats in Vehicles on Thermal Comfort During the Initial Warm-Up Period,” Appl. Ergon., 43(2), pp. 360–367. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Schoenfeld, A. D. , Lox, C. D. , Chen, C. H. , and Lutherer, L. O. , 1985, “ Pain Threshold Changes Induced by Acute Exposure to Altered Ambient Temperatures,” Peptides, 6(1), pp. 19–22. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Croze, S. , Duclaux, R. , and Russek, M. , 1977, “ Constancy of Heat Pain Characteristics to Changes in Skin and Body Temperature,” Brain Res., 131(2), pp. 367–372. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kojo, I. , and Pertovaara, A. , 1987, “ The Effects of Stimulus Area and Adaptation Temperature on Warm and Heat Pain Thresholds in Man,” Int. J. Neurosci., 32(3–4), pp. 875–880. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Molinari, H. H. , Greenspan, J. D. , and Krenshalo, D. R. , 1977, “ The Effects of Rate of Temperature Change and Adapting Temperature on Thermal Sensitivity,” Sens. Processes, 1(4), pp. 354–362. [PubMed]
Greenspan, J. D. , and Kenshalo, D. R. , 1985, “ The Primate as a Model for the Human Temperature-Sensing System: 2. Area of Skin Receiving Thermal Stimulation (Spatial Summation),” Somatosens. Motor Res., 2(4), pp. 315–324. [CrossRef]
Sumino, R. , and Dubner, R. , 1981, “ Response Characteristics of Specific Thermoreceptive Afferents Innervating Monkey Facial Skin and Their Relationship to Human Thermal Sensitivity,” Brain Res. Rev., 3(2), pp. 105–122. [CrossRef]
Baugh, E. , and Doherty, R. , 2011, “ Designing Notebook Computers to Ensure a Comfortable User Experience: Effects of Surface Temperature, Material, Locality, and Ambient Temperature,” Design, User Experience, and Usability. Theory, Methods, Tools and Practice, Springer, Berlin, pp. 539–547.
Berhe, M. K. , 2007,” Ergonomic Temperature Limits for Handheld Electronic Devices,” ASME Paper No. IPACK2007-33873, pp. 1041–1047.
Defrin, R. , Shachal-Shiffer, M. , Hadgadg, M. , and Peretz, C. , 2006, “ Quantitative Somatosensory Testing of Warm and Heat-Pain Thresholds: The Effect of Body Region and Testing Method,” Clin. J. Pain, 22(2), pp. 130–136. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Taylor, D. J. , McGillis, S. L. B. , and Greenspan, J. D. , 1993, “ Body Site Variation of Heat Pain Sensitivity,” Somatosens. Motor Res., 10(4), pp. 455–465. [CrossRef]
Kemler, M. A. , Reulen, J. P. H. , van Kleef, M. , Barendse, G. A. M. , van den Wildenberg, F. A. J. M. , and Spaans, F. , 2000, “ Thermal Thresholds in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I: Sensitivity and Repeatability of the Methods of Limits and Levels,” Clin. Neurophysiol., 111(9), pp. 1561–1568. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Yarnitsky, D. , Sprecher, E. , Zaslansky, R. , and Hemli, J. A. , 1995, “ Heat Pain Thresholds: Normative Data and Repeatability,” Pain, 60(3), pp. 329–332. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Tukey, J. W. , 1949, “ Comparing Individual Means in the Analysis of Variance,” Biometrics, pp. 99–114.
Montgomery, D. C. , and Runger, G. C. , 2010, Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Stevens, J. , and Choo, K. , 1998, “ Temperature Sensitivity of the Body Surface Over the Life Span,” Somatosens. Motor Res., 15(1), pp. 13–28. [CrossRef]
Craig, A. D. , and Bushnell, M. C. , 1994, “ The Thermal Grill Illusion: Unmasking the Burn of Cold Pain,” Science, 265(5169), pp. 252–255. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kenshalo, D. R. , and Isensee, O. , 1983, “ Responses of Primate SI Cortical Neurons to Noxious Stimuli,” J. Neurophysiol., 50(6), pp. 1479–1496. [PubMed]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

A participant holding the heating surface (left) and the IR image (right)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Control interface and stable heating temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Fingers thermal sensation and comfort scores with surface temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Interaction effect of ambient temperature and surface temperature on fingers

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Fingers thermal sensation scores with surface temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Fingers thermal sensation scores with surface temperature (error bar is 1 standard error from the mean)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Palm thermal sensation scores with surface temperature (error bar is 1 standard error from the mean)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Palm thermal comfort scores with surface temperature (error bar is 1 standard error from the mean)

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In