0
Research Papers

Microfeature Heat Exchanger Using Variable-Density Arrays for Near-Isothermal Cold-Plate Operation

[+] Author and Article Information
Noris Gallandat, Danielle Hesse

The George W. Woodruff School
of Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332

J. Rhett Mayor

Associate Professor
Mem. ASME
The George W. Woodruff School
of Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: rhett.mayor@me.gatech.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received September 25, 2015; final manuscript received December 8, 2015; published online March 10, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Xiaobing Luo.

J. Electron. Packag 138(1), 010908 (Mar 10, 2016) (6 pages) Paper No: EP-15-1096; doi: 10.1115/1.4032347 History: Received September 25, 2015; Revised December 08, 2015

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the possibility to selectively tune the convective heat transfer coefficient in different sections of a heat sink by varying the density of microfeatures in order to minimize temperature gradients between discrete heat sources positioned along the flow path. Lifetime of power electronics is strongly correlated to the thermal management of the junction. Therefore, it is of interest to have constant junction temperatures across all devices in the array. Implementation of microfeature enhancement on the convective side improves the heat transfer due to an increase in surface area. Specific shapes such as micro-hydrofoils offer a reduced pressure drop allowing for combined improvement of heat transfer and flow performance. This study presents experimental results from an array of three discrete heat sources (20 × 15 mm) generating 100 W/cm2 and positioned in line along the flow path with a spacing of 10 mm between each of the sources. The heat sink was machined out of aluminum 6061, and micro-hydrofoils with a characteristic length of 500 μm were embedded in the cold plate. The cooling medium used is water at a flow rate of 3.6–13.4 g/s corresponding to a Reynolds number of 420–1575. It is demonstrated that the baseplate temperature can be maintained below 90 °C, and the difference between the maximum temperatures of each heat source is less than 6.7 °C at a heat flux of 100 W/cm2 and a water flow rate of 4.8 g/s.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Thome, J. , 2004, “ Boiling in Microchannels: A Review of Experiment and Theory,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 25(2), pp. 128–139. [CrossRef]
Thome, J. , 2006, “ State-of-the-Art Overview of Boiling and Two-Phase Flows in Microchannels,” Heat Transfer Eng., 27(9), pp. 4–19. [CrossRef]
Thome, J. , and Consolini, L. , 2010, “ Mechanisms of Boiling in Microchannels: Critical Assessment,” Heat Trans. Eng., 31(4), pp. 288–297. [CrossRef]
Kandlikar, S. , 2004, “ Heat Transfer Mechanisms During Flow Boiling in Microchannels,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 126(1), pp. 8–16. [CrossRef]
Kandlikar, S. , 2002, “ Fundamental Issues Related to Flow Boiling in Minichannels and Microchannels,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 26, pp. 389–407. [CrossRef]
Kandlikar, S. , and Grande, W. , 2003, “ Evolution of Microchannel Flow Passages—Thermohydraulic Performance and Fabrication Technology,” Heat Transfer Eng., 24(1), pp. 3–17. [CrossRef]
Tuckerman, D. B. , and Pease, R. F. W. , 1981, “ High-Performance Heat Sinking for VLSI,” IEEE Electr. Dev. Lett., 2(5), pp. 126–129. [CrossRef]
Mehendale, S. S. , Jacobi, A. M. , and Shah, R. K. , 2000, “ Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer at Micro- and Meso-Scales With Application to Heat Exchanger Design,” ASME Appl. Mech. Rev., 53(7), pp. 175–193. [CrossRef]
Qu, W. , and Mudawar, I. , 2002, “ Experimental and Numerical Study of Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer in a Single-Phase Micro-Channel Heat Sink,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 45(12), pp. 2549–2565. [CrossRef]
Sobhan, C. B. , and Garimella, S. V. , 2001, “ A Comparative Analysis of Studies on Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Microchannels,” Microscale Thermophys. Eng., 5(4), pp. 293–311. [CrossRef]
García-Hernando, N. , Acosta-Iborra, A. , Ruiz-Rivas, U. , and Izquierdo, M. , 2009, “ Experimental Investigation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Single-Phase Liquid Flow Micro-Heat Exchanger,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 52, pp. 5433–5446. [CrossRef]
Peles, Y. , Kosar, A. , Mishra, C. , Chih-Jung, K. , and Schneider, B. , 2005, “ Forced Convective Heat Transfer Across a Pin Fin Micro Heat Sink,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 48(17), pp. 3615–3627. [CrossRef]
Kosar, A. , and Peles, Y. , 2006, “ Thermal–Hydraulic Performance of MEMS-Based Pin Fin Heat Sink,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 128(2), pp. 121–131. [CrossRef]
Abdel-Rehim, Z. S. , 2009, “ Optimization and Thermal Performance Assessment of Pin-Fin Heat Sinks,” Energy Sources, 31, pp. 51–65. [CrossRef]
Brunschwiler, T. , Michel, B. , Rothuizen, H. , Kloter, U. , Wunderle, B. , Oppermann, H. , and Reichl, H. , 2008, “ Interlayer Cooling Potential in Vertically Integrated Packages,” Microsyst. Technol., 15(1), pp. 57–74. [CrossRef]
Deshmukh, P. A. , and Warkhedkar, R. M. , 2013, “ Thermal Performance of Elliptical Pin Fin Heat Sink Under Combined Natural and Forced Convection,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 50, pp. 61–68. [CrossRef]
Hansen, N. , Catton, I. , and Zhou, F. , 2010, “ Heat Sink Optimization: A Multi-Parameter Optimization Problem,” ASME Paper No. IHTC14-22968.
Khan, W. A. , Culham, J. R. , and Yovanovich, M. M. , 2008, “ Optimization of Pin-Fin Heat Sinks in Bypass Flow Using Entropy Generation Minimization Method,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 130(3), p. 031010. [CrossRef]
Mitre, J. F. , Santana, L. M. , Damian, R. B. , Su, J. , and Lage, P. L. C. , 2010, “ Numerical Study of Turbulent Heat Transfer in 3D Pin-Fin Channels: Validation of a Quick Procedure to Estimate Mean Values in Quasi-Periodic Flows,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 30, pp. 2796–2803. [CrossRef]
Ndao, S. , Peles, Y. , and Jensen, M. K. , 2009, “ Multi-Objective Thermal Design Optimization and Comparative Analysis of Electronics Cooling Technologies,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 52, pp. 4317–4326. [CrossRef]
Shafeie, H. , Abouali, O. , Jafarpur, K. , and Ahmadi, G. , 2013, “ Numerical Study of Heat Transfer Performance of Single-Phase Heat Sinks With Micro Pin-Fin Structures,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 58, pp. 68–76. [CrossRef]
Chyu, M. K. , Hsing, Y. C. , and Natarajan, V. , 1998, “ Convective Heat Transfer of Cubic Fin Arrays in a Narrow Channel,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120(2), pp. 362–367. [CrossRef]
Kosar, A. , Mishra, C. , and Peles, Y. , 2005, “ Laminar Flow Across a Bank of Low Aspect Ratio Micro Pin Fins,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 127(3), pp. 419–430. [CrossRef]
Prasher, R. S. , Dirner, J. , Chang, J. Y. , Myers, A. , Chau, D. , He, D. , and Prstic, S. , 2007, “ Nusselt Number and Friction Factor of Staggered Arrays of Low Aspect Ratio Micropin-Fins Under Cross Flow for Water as Fluid,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 129(2), pp. 141–153. [CrossRef]
John, T. J. , Mathew, B. , and Hegab, H. , 2010, “ Characteristic Study on the Optimization of Micro Pin-Fin Heat Sink With Staggered Arrangement,” 10th AIAA/ASME Joint Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, Chicago, IL, June 28–July 1, AIAA Paper No. 2010-4781.
Kosar, A. , 2008, “ Two-Phase Pressure Drop Across a Hydrofoil-Based Micro Pin Device Using R-123,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 32(6), pp. 1213–1221. [CrossRef]
Kosar, A. , and Peles, Y. , 2007, “ Boiling Heat Transfer in A Hydrofoil-Based Micro Pin Fin Heat Sink,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 50, pp. 1018–1034. [CrossRef]
Semidey, S. A. , 2012, “ Thermal Design and Optimization of High Torque Density Electric Machines,” Ph.D. thesis, Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.
Semidey, S. A. , and Mayor, J. R. , 2014, “ Empirical Investigation of Aligned Micro-Hydrofoils Arrays Under Single-Phase Cross Flow: Part 1. Nusselt Number Correlation,” ASME 2014 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Montreal, Canada, Nov. 14–20.
Semidey, S. A. , and Mayor, J. R. , 2014, “ Empirical Investigation of Aligned Micro-Hydrofoils Arrays Under Single-Phase Cross Flow: Part 2. Friction Factor Correlation,” ASME 2014 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Montreal, Canada, Nov. 14–20.
Žukauskas, A. , 1972, “ Heat Transfer From Tubes in Crossflow,” Adv. Heat Transfer, 8, pp. 93–160.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Definition of the characteristic length (lc), the longitudinal pitch (sl), and the transversal pitch (st) for micro-hydrofoil arrays (from Ref. [29])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Cold-plate temperature and water temperature along the flow path. In the case with a constant feature density, the heat exchanger is overdesigned and maintains the first and second heat sources well below the required operating temperature.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Package considered with three discrete devices producing 300 W each with a contact surface of 15 × 20 mm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Flowchart summarizing the heat sink design process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Physical setup (a) and computational domain for the design of the heat exchanger(b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Heat exchanger with the three graded arrays of micro-hydrofoils machined out of aluminum 6061

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Schematic of the custom test bench to characterize the thermofluidic performance of the heat exchanger

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Location of the thermocouples and pressure sensors

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Plate and water temperature at a water flow rate of 12.82 g/s and a heat flux of 100 W/cm2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Plate and water temperature at a water flow rate of 7.91 g/s and a heat flux of 100 W/cm2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Plate and water temperature at a water flow rate of 4 g/s and a heat flux of 100 W/cm2

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In