Research Papers

Subcooled Boiling Heat Transfer for Cooling of Power Electronics in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

[+] Author and Article Information
Weihuan Zhao, Wenhua Yu

Energy Systems Division,
Argonne National Laboratory,
9700 South Cass Avenue,
Argonne, IL 60439

David M. France

Energy Systems Division,
Argonne National Laboratory,
9700 South Cass Avenue,
Argonne, IL 60439
Department of Mechanical
and Industrial Engineering,
University of Illinois at Chicago,
842 West Taylor Street (M/C 251),
Chicago, IL 60607

Dileep Singh

Energy Systems Division,
Argonne National Laboratory,
9700 South Cass Avenue,
Argonne, IL 60439
e-mail: dsingh@anl.gov

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received October 13, 2014; final manuscript received June 15, 2015; published online July 7, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Sandeep Tonapi.

The United States Government retains, and by accepting the article for publication, the publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains, a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

J. Electron. Packag 137(3), 031013 (Sep 01, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: EP-14-1090; doi: 10.1115/1.4030896 History: Received October 13, 2014; Revised June 15, 2015; Online July 07, 2015

At present, single-phase liquid, forced convection cooled heat sinks with fins are used to cool power electronics in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Although use of fins in the cooling channels increases heat transfer rates considerably, a second low-temperature radiator and associated pumping system are still required in HEVs. This additional cooling system adds weight and cost while decreasing the efficiency of HEVs. With the objective of eliminating this additional low-temperature radiator and pumping system in HEVs, an alternative cooling technology, subcooled boiling in the cooling channels, was investigated in the present study. Numerical heat transfer simulations were performed using subcooled boiling in the power electronics cooling channels with the coolant supplied from the existing main engine cooling system. Results show that this subcooled boiling system is capable of removing 25% more heat from the power electronics than the conventional forced convection cooling technology, or it can reduce the junction temperature of the power electronics at the current heat removal rate. With the 25% increased heat transfer option, high heat fluxes up to 250 W/cm2 (typical for wideband-gap semiconductor applications) are possible by using the subcooled boiling system.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Narumanchi, S., Hassani, V., and Bharathan, D., 2005, “Modeling Single-Phase and Boiling Liquid Jet Impingement Cooling in Power Electronics,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, Technical Report No. NREL/TP-540-38787.
Narumanchi, S., Hassani, V., Bharathan, D., and Troshko, A., 2006, “Numerical Simulations of Boiling Jet Impingement Cooling in Power Electronics,” 10th Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITHERM '06), San Diego, CA, May 30–June 2, pp. 204–214. [CrossRef]
Narumanchi, S., Troshko, A., Bharathan, D., and Hassani, V., 2008, “Numerical Simulations of Nucleate Boiling in Impinging Jets: Applications in Power Electronics Cooling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 51(1), pp. 1–12. [CrossRef]
Rau, M. J., and Garimella, S. V., 2013, “Local Two-Phase Heat Transfer From Arrays of Confined and Submerged Impinging Jets,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 67, pp. 487–498. [CrossRef]
Mudawar, I., Bharathan, D., Kelly, K., and Narumanchi, S., 2009, “Two-Phase Spray Cooling of Hybrid Vehicle Electronics,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol., 32(2), pp. 501–512. [CrossRef]
Turek, L. J., Rini, D. P., Saarloos, B. A., and Chow, L. C., 2008, “Evaporative Spray Cooling of Power Electronics Using High Temperature Coolant,” 11th Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITHERM 2008), Orlando, FL, May 28–31, pp. 346–351. [CrossRef]
Bostanci, H., Van Ee, D., Saarloos, B. A., Rini, D. P., and Chow, L. C., 2009, “Spray Cooling of Power Electronics Using High Temperature Coolant and Enhanced Surface,” IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC '09), Dearborn, MI, Sept. 7–10, pp. 609–613. [CrossRef]
Campbell, J. B., 2004, “A Two-Phase Cooling Method Using R134a Refrigerant to Cool Power Electronics Devices,” Master's thesis, University of Tennessee–Knoxville, Knoxville, TN.
Moreno, G., Narumanchi, S., and King, C., 2013, “Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics of HFO-1234yf on Plain and Microporous-Enhanced Surfaces,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 135(11), p. 111014. [CrossRef]
Wang, P., McCluskey, P., and Bar-Cohen, A., 2013, “Two-Phase Liquid Cooling for Thermal Management of IGBT Power Electronic Module,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 135(2), p. 021001. [CrossRef]
Bennion, K., and Kelly, K., 2009, “Rapid Modeling of Power Electronics Thermal Management Technologies,” 5th IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC '09), Dearborn, MI, Sept. 7–10, pp. 622–629. [CrossRef]
McAdams, W. H., Minden, C. S., Carl, R., Picornell, D. M., and Dew, J. E., 1949, “Heat Transfer at High Rates to Water With Surface Boiling,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 41(9), pp. 1945–1963. [CrossRef]
Jens, W. H., and Lottes, P. A., 1951, “Analysis of Heat Transfer, Burnout, Pressure Drop and Density Data for High-Pressure Water,” Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, Report No. ANL-4627.
Thom, J. R. S., Walker, W. M., Fallon, T. A., and Reising, G. F. S., 1965, “Boiling in Subcooled Water During Flow Up Heated Tubes or Annuli,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 180(Pt. 3C), pp. 226–246. [CrossRef]
Shah, M. M., 1977, “A General Correlation for Heat Transfer During Subcooled Boiling in Pipes and Annuli,” ASHRAE Trans., 83(1), pp. 202–217.
Kandlikar, S. G., 1998, “Heat Transfer Characteristics in Partial Boiling, Fully Developed Boiling, and Significant Void Flow Regions of Subcooled Flow Boiling,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 120(2), pp. 395–401. [CrossRef]
Yu, W., France, D. M., Singh, D., Smith, R. K., Ritter, J., Vijlbrief, T., and Menger, Y., 2014, “Subcooled Flow Boiling of Ethylene Glycol/Water Mixtures in a Bottom-Heated Tube,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 72, pp. 637–645. [CrossRef]
Freeland, T., 2002, “Antifreeze,” http://avenger-valkyrie.org/techinfo/antifreeze.htm
Kim, S., and Mudawar, I., 2012, “Consolidated Method to Predicting Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer Coefficient for Both Subcooled and Saturated Flow Boiling in Micro-Channel Heat Sinks,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 55(13–14), pp. 3720–3731. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Concept of subcooled boiling system for cooling power electronics

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Typical power electronics and cooling channel configuration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Side view identifying each layer of power electronics and cooling channels

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Mesh structure (unit in meters)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Verification of simulation model: (a) modeling geometry and (b) comparison of the temperature profile

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Verification of subcooled boiling heat transfer coefficient model: (a) coolant fluid temperature 82 °C and (b) coolant fluid temperature 97 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

TIM thermal conductivity effects

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Junction temperature of subcooled boiling with a 7.5 W/m K TIM thermal conductivity: (a) without fins and (b) with fins

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Flow velocity effects

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Coolant inlet temperature effects

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Heat flux effects

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

High heat flux applications (heat flux 250 W/cm2): (a) convective heat transfer and (b) subcooled boiling




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In