Research Papers

Study of Electromigration-Induced Stress of Solder

[+] Author and Article Information
Fei Su

Institute of Solid Mechanics,
Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Beijing 100191, China
e-mail: sufei@buaa.edu.cn

Zheng Zhang, Yuan Wang, Weijia Li

Institute of Solid Mechanics,
Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Beijing 100191, China

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received March 1, 2014; final manuscript received December 22, 2014; published online January 19, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Kaustubh Nagarkar.

J. Electron. Packag 137(2), 021006 (Jun 01, 2015) (6 pages) Paper No: EP-14-1025; doi: 10.1115/1.4029463 History: Received March 01, 2014; Revised December 22, 2014; Online January 19, 2015

This study designed and produced a special microsolder specimen (Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu) to equalize current density under stressing. The specimen was generated to avoid temperature gradient and thermal migration. The inelastic deformation of the solder with electromigration (EM) alone was then measured with moiré interferometry. In addition, the EM-induced solder stress was evaluated using a finite element method (FEM). The precision of the FEM model was verified by comparing the simulated results with the experimental results with respect to EM-induced deformation. Findings indicated that the maximum spherical stress in the solder can reach 50 MPa. Moreover, the vacancy concentration is much higher on the cathode end than on the anode end. The simulation results can illustrate the failure mode of a solder and can therefore provide a basis for the comprehensive evaluation of solder reliability under EM.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Tu, K. N., 2003, “Recent Advance on Electromigration in Very-Large-Scale-Integration of Interconnects,” J. Appl. Phys. Rev., 94(9), pp. 5451–5473. [CrossRef]
Chen, C., Tong, H. M., and Tu, K. N., 2010, “Electromigration and Thermomigration in Pb-Free Flip-Chip Solder Joints,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res., 40(8), pp. 531–555. [CrossRef]
Lai, Y.-S., Chiu, Y.-T., and Lee, C.-W., 2009, “Electromigration Reliability of 96.5Sn–3Ag–0.5Cu Flip-Chip Solder Joints With Au/Ni/Cu or Cu Substrate Pad Metallization,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 131(2), p. 021002. [CrossRef]
Lu, H., Yu, C., Li, P., and Chen, J., 2008, “Current Crowding and Its Effects on Electromigration and Interfacial Reaction in Lead-Free Solder Joints,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 130(3), p. 031008. [CrossRef]
Su, F., Mao, R. H., Wang, G. Z., Wang, X. Y., and Pan, H. Y., 2011, “Creep Behavior of Sn–3.8Ag–0.7Cu Under the Effect of Electromigration: Experiments and Modelling,” Microelectron. Reliab., 51(5), pp. 7357–7363. [CrossRef]
Li, Z., and Dong, Y., 2007, “Electromigration-Induced Coble Creep in Polycrystalline Materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 91(19), p. 191902. [CrossRef]
Basaran, C., and Lin, M., 2007, “Electromigration Induced Strain Field Simulations for Nanoelectronics Lead-Free Solder Joints,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 44(14–15), pp. 4909–4924. [CrossRef]
Chen, K., Tamura, N., Kunz, M., Tu, K. N., and Lai, Y.-S., 2009, “In Situ Measurement of Electromigration-Induced Transient Stress in Pb-Free Sn–Cu Solder Joints by Synchrotron Radiation Based X-Ray Polychromatic Microdiffraction,” J. Appl. Phys., 106(2), p. 023502. [CrossRef]
Lee, W. W., Nguyen, L. T., and Selvaduray, G. S., 2000, “Solder Joint Fatigue Models: Review and Applicability to Chip Scale Packages,” Microelectron. Reliab., 40(2), pp. 231–244. [CrossRef]
Ye, H., Basaran, C., and Hopkins, D., 2003, “Thermomigration in Pb–Sn Solder Joints Under Joule Heating During Electric Current Stressing,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 82(7), pp. 1045–1047. [CrossRef]
Huang, A. T., Gusak, A. M., Tu, K. N., and Lai, Y. S., 2006, “Thermomigration in SnPb Composite Flip Chip Solder Joints,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 88(14), pp. 141911–141914. [CrossRef]
Post, D., Han, B., and Ifju, P., 1990, High Sensitivity Moiré: Experimental Analysis for Mechanics and Materials , Springer-Verlag, New York.
Blech, I. A., 1998, “Diffusional Back Flows During Electromigration,” Acta Mater., 46(11), pp. 3717–3723. [CrossRef]
Sarychev, M. E., and Zhinikov, Yu. V., 1999, “General Model for Mechanical Stress Evolution During Electromigration,” J. Appl. Phys., 86(6), pp. 3068–3075. [CrossRef]
Jing, J. P., Liang, L., and Meng, G., 2010, “Electromigration Simulation for Metal Lines,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 132(1), p. 011002. [CrossRef]
Pang, J. H. L., Xiong, B. S., and Low, T. H., 2004, “Creep and Fatigue Characterization of Lead Free 95.5Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu Solder,” 54th Electronic Components and Technology Conference, Las Vegas, NV, June 1–4, Vol. 2, pp. 1333–1337. [CrossRef]
Choi, W. J., Lee, T. Y., Tu, K. N., Tamura, N., Celestre, R. S., MacDowell, A. A., Bong, Y. Y., Nguyen, L., and Sheng, G. T. T., 2002, “Structure and Kinetics of Sn Whisker Growth on Pb-Free Solder Finish,” Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, http://escholarship.org/uc/item/45m6m0d1
Sobiech, M., Welze, U., Mittemeijer, E. J., Hügel, W., and Seekamp, A., 2008, “Driving Force for Sn Whisker Growth in the System Cu–Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 93(1), p. 011906. [CrossRef]
Lee, B.-Z., and Lee, D. N., 1998, “Spontaneous Growth Mechanism of Tin Whiskers,” Acta Mater., 46(10), pp. 3701–3714. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Specimen for EM test: (a) sketch of the specimen, (b) solder microstructure after reflow, and (c) intermetallic compounds in the solder

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Uniformity of the electrical current and temperature field of the solder. (a) FEM simulation result of the current density field and (b) temperature field by infrared camera.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Morphology of a solder after 240 hr of current stressing: (a) hillocks (Sn whiskers) of the solder, (b) details on the anode side, (c) details at middle of the solder, and (d) development process of a hillock

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

EM-induced inelastic solder deformation, the rectangle indicates the position and contour of the solder

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Evolutions of normalized vacancy concentrations on the cathode and on the anode under current stressing at 300 A/mm2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Simulation of the EM-induced deformation and strain field of the solder after 1000 hr of current stressing at 300 A/mm2: (a) V field of the EM-induced inelastic deformation and (b) U field of the EM-induced inelastic deformation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison of simulated and tested stress due to EM: (a) FEM simulation of EM-induced solder stress and (b) experimental findings of EM-induced stress through synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction [12]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Simulated compressive spherical stress caused by reduced diffusion mass flux in the middle of the solder




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In