0
Research Papers

Damage Evolution in Lead Free Solder Joints in Isothermal Fatigue

[+] Author and Article Information
Awni Qasaimeh

Department of Manufacturing and
Engineering Technology,
Tennessee Tech University,
1 William L. Jones Drive,
Cookeville, TN 38505
e-mail: aqasaimeh@tntech.edu

Sa’d Hamasha, Peter Borgesen

Department of Systems Science and
Industrial Engineering,
Binghamton University,
P.O. Box 6000,
Binghamton, NY 13902

Younis Jaradat

Department of Systems Science and Industrial Engineering,
Binghamton University,
P.O. Box 6000,
Binghamton, NY 13902

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received September 4, 2014; final manuscript received December 8, 2014; published online January 21, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Eric Wong.

J. Electron. Packag 137(2), 021012 (Jun 01, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: EP-14-1077; doi: 10.1115/1.4029441 History: Received September 04, 2014; Revised December 08, 2014; Online January 21, 2015

The extrapolation and generalization of accelerated test results for lead free solder joints require the identification of a damage function that can be counted on to apply beyond the region of the test. Individual ball grid array (BGA) scale Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder joints were subjected to isothermal shear fatigue testing at room temperature and 65 °C. The resulting mechanical response degradation and crack behavior, including strain hardening, crack initiation, and propagation, were correlated with the inelastic work and effective stiffness derived from load–displacement hysteresis loops. Crack initiation was found to scale with the accumulated work, independently of cycling amplitude and strain rate. The subsequent damage rate varied slightly with amplitude.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Mattila, T., 2005, “Reliability of High–Density Lead–Free Solder Interconnections Under Thermal Cycling and Mechanical Shock Loading,” Ph.D. dissertation, Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, Finland.
Mayyas, A., Yin, L., and Borgesen, P., 2009, “Recrystallization of Lead Free Solder Joints: Confounding The Interpretation of Accelerated Thermal Cycling Results?,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2009-12749. [CrossRef]
Mayyas, A., Qasaimeh, A., Borgesen, P., and Meilunas, M., 2014, “Effects of Latent Damage of Recrystallization on Lead Free Solder Joints,” Microelectron. Reliab., 54(2), pp. 447–456. [CrossRef]
Andersson, C., Lai, Z., Liu, J., Jiang, H., and Yu, Y., 2005, “Comparison of Isothermal Mechanical Fatigue Properties of Lead-Free Solder Joints and Bulk Solders,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A394(1), pp. 20–27. [CrossRef]
Zhao, J., Mutoh, Y., Miyashita, Y., and Mannan, S., 2002, “Fatigue Crack-Growth Behavior of Sn–Ag–Cu and Sn–Ag–Cu–Bi Lead-Free Solders,” J. Electron. Mater., 31(8), pp. 879–886. [CrossRef]
Mutoh, Y., Zhao, J., Miyashita, Y., and Kanchanomai, C., 2002, “Fatigue Crack Growth Behaviour of Lead-Containing and Lead-Free Solders,” Soldering Surf. Mount Technol., 14(3), pp. 37–45. [CrossRef]
Kanchanomai, C., Miyashita, Y., Mutoh, Y., and Mannan, S. L., 2002, “Low Cycle Fatigue and Fatigue Crack Growth Behaviour of Sn–Ag Eutectic Solder,” Soldering Surf. Mount Technol., 14(3), pp. 30–36. [CrossRef]
Kanchanomai, C., and Mutoh, Y., 2007, “Fatigue Crack Initiation and Growth in Solder Alloys,” Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct., 30(5), pp. 443–457. [CrossRef]
Kanchanomai, C., Miyashita, Y., and Mutoh, Y., 2002, “Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior and Mechanisms of a Lead-Free Solder 96.5 Sn/3.5 Ag,” J. Electronic Mater., 31(2), pp. 142–151. [CrossRef]
Kanchanomai, C., Miyashita, Y., Mutoh, Y., and Mannan, S. L., 2003, “Influence of Frequency on Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Pb-Free Solder 96.5 Sn–3.5 Ag,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A345(1), pp. 90–98. [CrossRef]
Kanchanomai, C., and Mutoh, Y., 2004, “Low-Cycle Fatigue Prediction Model for Pb-Free Solder 96.5 Sn-3.5 Ag,” J. Electron. Mater., 33(4), pp. 329–333. [CrossRef]
Pang, J. H., Xiong, B. S., and Low, T. H., 2004, “Low Cycle Fatigue Models for Lead-Free Solders,” Thin Solid Films, 462, pp. 408–412. [CrossRef]
Shang, J., Zeng, Q., Zhang, L., and Zhu, Q., 2007, “Mechanical Fatigue of Sn-Rich Pb-Free Solder Alloys,” J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron., 18(1–3), pp. 211–227. [CrossRef]
Darveaux, R., 2002, “Effect of Simulation Methodology on Solder Joint Crack Growth Correlation and Fatigue Life Prediction,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 124(3), pp. 147–154. [CrossRef]
Letcher, T., Shen, M. H., Scott-Emuakpor, O., George, T., and Cross, C., 2012, “An Energy-Based Critical Fatigue Life Prediction Method for AL6061‐T6,” Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct., 35(9), pp. 861–870. [CrossRef]
Tchankov, D. S., and Vesselinov, K. V., 1998, “Fatigue Life Prediction Under Random Loading Using Total Hysteresis Energy,” Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping, 75(13), pp. 955–960. [CrossRef]
Rasband, W. S., 1997, imagej, U. S. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, accessed Nov. 2014, http://imagej.nih.gov/ij/
Borgesen, P., Bieler, T., Lehman, L. P., and Cotts, E. J., 2007, “Pb-Free Solder: New Materials Considerations for Microelectronics Processing,” MRS Bull., 32(04), pp. 360–365. [CrossRef]
Qasaimeh, A., Jaradat, Y., Wentlent, L., Yang, L., Yin, L., Arfaei, B., and Borgesen, P., 2011, “Recrystallization Behavior of Lead Free and Lead Containing Solder in Cycling,” IEEE 61st Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), Lake Buena Vista, FL, May 31–June 3, pp. 1775–1781. [CrossRef]
Rittel, D., Kidane, A. A., Alkhader, M., Venkert, A., Landau, P., and Ravichandran, G., 2012, “On the Dynamically Stored Energy of Cold Work in Pure Single Crystal and Polycrystalline Copper,” Acta Mater., 60(9), pp. 3719–3728. [CrossRef]
Hamasha, S., Jaradat, Y., Qasaimeh, A., Obaidat, M., and Borgesen, P., 2014, “Assessment of Solder Joint Fatigue Life Under Realistic Service Conditions,” J. Electron. Mater., 43(12), pp. 4472–4484. [CrossRef]
Hamasha, S., Qasaimeh, A., Jaradat, Y., and Borgesen, P., 2015, “Correlation Between Solder Joint Fatigue Life and Accumulated Inelastic Energy Deposition (Work) in Isothermal Cycling,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag. Manuf. Technol. (submitted).

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic showing shear fatigue testing of individual bump. Solder diameter = 30 mil, pad diameter = 22 mil, fixture opening = 40 mil, and fixture offset from the pad = 6 mil.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Instron machine and sample setup during the test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Load–displacement relation illustrating loading slope and inelastic work calculations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Loading slopes versus cycles in load controlled test for SAC305 solder under 400 gf peak load at room temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Loading slopes versus cycles in load controlled test for three SAC305 solder joints. Peak load is 500 gf at room temperature.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Cross polarizer image of cross section of 30 mil SAC305 BGA joint showing beach ball structure [19]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Loading slope (effective stiffness) with cycling in displacement controlled mode. Peak displacement is 20 μm at room temperature.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Initial loading slopes for different cycling peak loads (SAC305) at room temperature (median is shown). Sample size is 12.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The effective stiffness of the lead free alloys as a function of the stress amplitude [21]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Loading slopes behavior in variable loading amplitude: mild cycling (100 cycles at 300 gf) interrupted by harsh (100 cycles at 500 gf, dotted red line) followed by another 100 cycles at 300 gf at room temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Number of fatigue cycles to reach maximum stiffness for different peak loads at room temperature. Sample size is 9.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Work progression with cycling under load controlled test (400 gf peak load)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Work per cycle versus number of fatigue cycles for different peak loads

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Comparison of work progression in load controlled testing at room temperature and 65 °C (500 gf peak load)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Weibull probability plots of the fatigue life of SAC305 alloy at 600 gf cyclic load and different loading rate at room temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Box plot of work deposition per cycle of SAC305 at different loading rate. Sample size is 10.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Total work to failure versus cumulative failure % for different loading rates: 600 gf peak load

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Examples of dye penetration in the cracked area after 300 cycles (load controlled: 500 gf peak load): accumulated work is 0.005 J (left) and 450 cycles—accumulated work is 0.018 J (right)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Examples of cracked area after 2000 cycles (displacement control: 25 μm peak displacement): accumulated work is 0.0125 J (left): and 3000 cycles—accumulated work is 0.0089 J (right)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Loading slope drop and crack area in load controlled test for different peak loads

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Loading slope drop versus crack area under displacement controlled test of 25 μm peak displacement

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Slope variation versus accumulated work indicating crack initiation and propagation parts. Cycling at room temperature.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Work deposition for crack initiation at different cycling peak loads

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 24

Boxplots for the prefactor (left) and the exponent (right) in the equation under different cycling amplitudes

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In