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Research Papers

Assessment of Lumen Degradation and Remaining Life of Light-Emitting Diodes Using Physics-Based Indicators and Particle Filter

[+] Author and Article Information
Pradeep Lall

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
NSF CAVE3 Electronics Research Center,
Auburn University,
Auburn, AL 36849
e-mail: lall@auburn.edu

Hao Zhang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
NSF CAVE3 Electronics Research Center,
Auburn University,
Auburn, AL 36849

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received January 1, 2014; final manuscript received October 21, 2014; published online December 3, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Yi-Shao Lai.

J. Electron. Packag 137(2), 021002 (Jun 01, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: EP-14-1002; doi: 10.1115/1.4028957 History: Received January 01, 2014; Revised October 21, 2014; Online December 03, 2014

The development of light-emitting diode (LED) technology has resulted in widespread solid state lighting (SSL) use in consumer and industrial applications. Previous researchers have shown that LEDs from the same manufacturer and operating under same use-condition may have significantly different degradation behavior. Applications of LEDs to safety critical and harsh environment applications necessitate the characterization of failure mechanisms and modes. This paper focuses on a prognostic health management (PHM) method based on the measurement of forward voltage and forward current of bare LED under harsh environment. In this paper, experiments have been done on single LEDs subjected to combined temperature–humidity environment of 85 °C, 85% relative humidity. Pulse width modulation (PWM) control method has been employed to drive the bare LED in order to reduce the heat effect caused by forward current and high frequency (300 Hz). A data acquisition system has been used to measure the peak forward voltage and forward current. Test to failure (luminous flux drops to 70%) data has been measured to study the effects of high temperature and humid environment loadings on the bare LEDs. A solid state cooling method with a Peltier cooler has been used to control the temperature of the LED in the integrating sphere when taking the measurement of luminous flux. The shift of forward voltage forward current curve and lumen degradation has been recorded to help build the failure model and predict the remaining useful life (RUL). Particle filter has been employed to assess the RUL of the bare LED. Model predictions of RUL have been correlated with experimental data. Results show that prediction of RUL of LEDs, made by the particle filter model, works with acceptable error-bounds. The presented method can be employed to predict the failure of LED caused by thermal and humid stresses.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
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Figures

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Fig. 3

LED attached to the Peltier cooler and heat sink

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Fig. 4

Detailed setup for PWM

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Fig. 5

Modified PWM method

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Fig. 6

Test setup for measurement of forward voltage and forward current

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Fig. 7

Procedure for getting data

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Fig. 8

XR_C RMS IV curve for WHTOL test

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Fig. 9

Thermal measurement setup at the initial state

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Fig. 10

Change of luminous flux versus time at forward voltage 2.3 V RMS

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Fig. 11

Change of forward current versus time at 2.3 V RMS

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Fig. 12

Correlation of forward current, luminous flux, and resistance (sample-1)

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Fig. 13

Correlation of forward current, luminous flux, and resistance (sample-4)

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Fig. 14

Correlation of forward current, luminous flux, and resistance (sample-5)

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Fig. 15

Change of radiant flux versus time

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Fig. 16

Particles and weight distribution

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Fig. 17

Propagation of particles

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Fig. 18

RUL of particle filter

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Fig. 19

Beta accuracy for particle filter

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Fig. 20

RA for particle filter

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