Research Papers

Simplifying Reliability Testing of Wire Bonds Using On-Chip Heater and Pad Resistance Method

[+] Author and Article Information
S. Kim

Department of Mechanical
and Mechatronics Engineering,
University of Waterloo,
200 University Ave. W.,
Waterloo, ON N2L3G1, Canada
e-mail: s34kim@uwaterloo.ca

M. Mayer

Department of Mechanical
and Mechatronics Engineering,
University of Waterloo,
200 University Ave. W.,
Waterloo, ON N2L3G1, Canada
e-mail: mmayer@uwaterloo.ca

J. Persic

Microbonds, Inc.,
Markham, ON L3R3B3, Canada,
e-mail: jpersic@microbonds.com

J. T. Moon

MK Electron Co.,
316-2 Geumeo-ri,
Cheoin-gu Yongin-si,
Gyeonggi-do 449-812, South Korea
e-mail: jtmoon@mke.co.kr

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received August 15, 2013; final manuscript received August 10, 2014; published online October 6, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Susan Lu.

J. Electron. Packag 137(1), 011002 (Oct 06, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: EP-13-1089; doi: 10.1115/1.4028281 History: Received August 15, 2013; Revised August 10, 2014

In situ sensors can measure wire bond reliability nondestructively during thermal aging. Conventional thermal aging of ball bonds requires ovens heating the entire microchip along with the wire bonds, also affecting interconnects for in situ sensors. To protect the interconnects and on-chip logic components of in situ sensor chips, conventional thermal aging is kept below a safe temperature limit of 200 °C. At higher temperatures, the doped Si components change their characteristics and transistors stop working. Localized on-chip heating is introduced to circumvent these drawbacks using a new microheater to increase the safe temperature limit for nondestructive reliability assessment with in situ sensors. The effect of temperature on surrounding components is reduced. The microheater is a rectangular design resistive heater made from N+ silicon. In addition, a pad resistance measurement is introduced that indicates bond aging more conveniently than previously reported bond resistance measurements.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Topics: Temperature , Wire
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Fig. 1

Micrograph showing the microheater and bond connections to substructures. Overlaid with component outlines.

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Fig. 2

Diagram showing lateral cross section of microheater. Dimensions not to scale.

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Fig. 3

Setup used for running of microheater experiments

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Fig. 4

Steps 1–3 for resistance versus temperature characterization of all components

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Fig. 5

Example values obtained during thermal characterization of sample S1 for the heating element (a) and the RTD (b)

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Fig. 6

Steps 1–3 to characterize the microheater's self-heating, and establishing the relationship between the heater temperature and RTD temperature at a given power

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Fig. 7

Example values obtained during power characterization of sample S1

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Fig. 8

RTD and microheater temperatures at various power levels for sample S1. Values in dashed box are used for the determination of the heater versus RTD temperature extrapolation, as nonlinear effects are observed at higher temperatures.

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Fig. 9

Geometry definitions of FE model. Dimensions in μm: pad 80 × 80 × 2 and RTD 70 × 110 × 0.66 on top of SiO2 dielectric sheet 274 × 110 × 1, microheater 80 × 120 × 4 embedded at surface of Si chip, gap from pad to RTD: 27.

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Fig. 10

Simulated temperature on (a) cross section plane through test pad and (b) top level of Si chip, same scale as in (a). Heater power is 2.286 W.

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Fig. 11

Uniformity of simulated temperature of test pad. Heater power is 2.286 W. Solid lines are for pad without bond, dashed lines are for pad with ball bond. Inset shows simplified ball bond model.

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Fig. 12

Layout and connections of equipment in the microheater setup

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Fig. 13

Drift during a high temperature cycling test. RTD resistance (a), heater voltage (b), and heater current (c) were taken during the high power portion of the cycle, after the temperature has stabilized.

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Fig. 14

Optical image of an Au ball bond on the microheater test pad before (a) and after (b) 24 h of aging, indicating the massive amount of IMC formed due to HTS

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Fig. 15

Illustration of four-wire method used for pad resistance measurement. Pad has four contacts, one in each corner.

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Fig. 16

Pad resistance of sample S7. Phases 1–4 indicated with arrows.



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