0
Research Papers

Compact Model-Based Microfluidic Controller for Energy Efficient Thermal Management Using Single Tier and Three-Dimensional Stacked Pin-Fin Enhanced Microgap

[+] Author and Article Information
Xuefei Han, Yogendra K. Joshi

The George W. Woodruff School
of Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received August 1, 2013; final manuscript received September 10, 2014; published online October 15, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Gongnan Xie.

J. Electron. Packag 137(1), 011008 (Oct 15, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: EP-13-1083; doi: 10.1115/1.4028574 History: Received August 01, 2013; Revised September 10, 2014

Overcooling of electronic devices and systems results in excess energy consumption, which can be reduced by closely linking cooling requirements with actual power dissipation. A thermal model-based flow rate controller for single phase liquid cooled single tier and three-dimensional (3D) stacked chips, using pin-fin enhanced microgap was studied in this paper. Thermal compact models of a planar and 3D stacked two-layer pin-fin enhanced microgap were developed, which ran 104-105 times faster than using full-field computational fluid dynamics/heat transfer (CFD/HT) method, with reasonable accuracy and spatial details. Compact model was used in conjunction with a flow rate control strategy to provide the needed amount of liquid to cool the heat sources to the desired temperature range. Example case studies show that the estimated energy savings in pump power is about 25% compared with pumping fluid at a constant flow rate.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Sridhar, A., Vincenzi, A., Ruggiero, M., Brunschwiler, T., and Atienza, D., 2010, “3D-ICE: Fast Compact Transient Thermal Modeling for 3D ICs With Inter-Tier Liquid Cooling,” IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD), San Jose, CA, Nov. 7–11, pp. 463–470. [CrossRef]
Bakir, M. S., King, C., Sekar, D., Thacker, H., Dang, B., Huang, G., Naeemi, A., and Meindl, J. D., 2008, “3D Heterogeneous Integrated Systems: Liquid Cooling, Power Delivery, and Implementation,” IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (CICC 2008), San Jose, CA, Sept. 21–24, pp. 663–670. [CrossRef]
Xie, G., Chen, Z., Sunden, B., and Zhang, W., 2013, “Numerical Predictions of the Flow and Thermal Performance of Water-Cooled Single-Layer and Double-Layer Wavy Microchannel Heat Sinks,” Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A , 63(3), pp. 201–225. [CrossRef]
Lin, L., Chen, Y.-Y., Zhang, X.-X., and Wang, X.-D., 2014, “Optimization of Geometry and Flow Rate Distribution for Double-Layer Microchannel Heat Sink,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 78, pp. 158–168. [CrossRef]
Yue, Z., King, C. R., Zaveri, J., Yoon Jo, K., Sahu, V., Joshi, Y., and Bakir, M. S., 2011, “Coupled Electrical and Thermal 3D IC Centric Microfluidic Heat Sink Design and Technology,” IEEE 61st Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), Lake Buena Vista, FL, May 31–June 3, pp. 2037–2044. [CrossRef]
Xie, G., Liu, J., Liu, Y., Sunden, B., and Zhang, W., 2013, “Comparative Study of Thermal Performance of Longitudinal and Transversal-Wavy Microchannel Heat Sinks for Electronic Cooling,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 135(2), p. 021008. [CrossRef]
Brunschwiler, T., Michel, B., Rothuizen, H., Kloter, U., Wunderle, B., Oppermann, H., and Reichl, H., 2009, “Interlayer Cooling Potential in Vertically Integrated Packages,” Microsyst. Technol., 15(1), pp. 57–74. [CrossRef]
Munteanu, S., Rajadas, J., Nam, C., and Chattopadhyay, A., 2005, “A Volterra Kernel Reduced-Order Model Approach for Nonlinear Aeroelastic Analysis,” AIAA Paper No. 2005-1854. [CrossRef]
Silva, W., 2005, “Identification of Nonlinear Aeroelastic Systems Based on the Volterra Theory: Progress and Opportunities,” Nonlinear Dyn., 39(1–2), pp. 25–62. [CrossRef]
Balajewicz, M., Nitzsche, F., and Feszty, D., 2009, “Reduced Order Modeling of Nonlinear Transonic Aerodynamics Using a Pruned Volterra Series,” AIAA Paper No. 2009-2319. [CrossRef]
McMullen, M., Jameson, A., and Alonso, J., 2006, “Demonstration of Nonlinear Frequency Domain Methods,” AIAA J., 44(7), pp. 1428–1435. [CrossRef]
Ekici, K., and Hall, K. C., 2007, “Nonlinear Analysis of Unsteady Flows in Multistage Turbomachines Using Harmonic Balance,” AIAA J., 45(5), pp. 1047–1057. [CrossRef]
Ekici, K., Hall, K. C., and Dowell, E. H., 2008, “Computationally Fast Harmonic Balance Methods for Unsteady Aerodynamic Predictions of Helicopter Rotors,” J. Comput. Phys., 227(12), pp. 6206–6225. [CrossRef]
Nie, Q., and Joshi, Y., 2008, “Reduced-Order Modeling and Experimental Validation of Steady Turbulent Convection in Connected Domains,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 51(25), pp. 6063–6076. [CrossRef]
Rambo, J., and Joshi, Y., 2007, “Reduced-Order Modeling of Turbulent Forced Convection With Parametric Conditions,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 50(3), pp. 539–551. [CrossRef]
Barbagallo, A., Sipp, D., and Schmid, P. J., 2009, “Closed-Loop Control of an Open Cavity Flow Using Reduced-Order Models,” J. Fluid Mech., 641, pp. 1–50. [CrossRef]
Cohen, K., Siegel, S., Seidel, J., and McLaughlin, T., 2006, “Reduced Order Modeling for Closed-Loop Control of Three-Dimensional Wakes,” AIAA Paper No. 2006-3356. [CrossRef]
Peles, Y., Koşar, A., Mishra, C., Kuo, C.-J., and Schneider, B., 2005, “Forced Convective Heat Transfer Across a Pin Fin Micro Heat Sink,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 48(17), pp. 3615–3627. [CrossRef]
Moores, K. A., Kim, J., and Joshi, Y. K., 2009, “Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Shrouded Pin Fin Arrays With and Without Tip Clearance,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 52(25–26), pp. 5978–5989. [CrossRef]
Prasher, R. S., Dirner, J., Chang, J.-Y., Myers, A., Chau, D., He, D., and Prstic, S., 2007, “Nusselt Number and Friction Factor of Staggered Arrays of Low Aspect Ratio Micropin-Fins Under Cross Flow for Water as Fluid,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 129(2), pp. 141–153. [CrossRef]
Donald, J., and Martonosi, M., 2006, “Techniques for Multicore Thermal Management: Classification and New Exploration,” 33rd International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA '06), Boston, MA, June 17–21, pp. 78–88. [CrossRef]
Coskun, A. K., Ayala, J. L., Atienza, D., Rosing, T. S., and Leblebici, Y., 2009, “Dynamic Thermal Management in 3D Multicore Architectures,” Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (DATE'09), Nice, France, Apr. 20–24, pp. 1410–1415. [CrossRef]
Zhu, C., Gu, Z., Shang, L., Dick, R. P., and Joseph, R., 2008, “Three-Dimensional Chip-Multiprocessor Run-Time Thermal Management,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Aided Des. Integr. Circuits Syst., 27(8), pp. 1479–1492. [CrossRef]
Seongmoo, H., Barr, K., and Asanovic, K., 2003, “Reducing Power Density Through Activity Migration,” International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design (ISLPED '03), Seoul, South Korea, Aug. 25–27, pp. 217–222. [CrossRef]
Coskun, A. K., Atienza, D., Rosing, T. S., Brunschwiler, T., and Michel, B., 2010, “Energy-Efficient Variable-Flow Liquid Cooling in 3D Stacked Architectures,” Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (DATE), Dresden, Germany, Mar. 8–12, pp. 111–116. [CrossRef]
Sabry, M. M., Coskun, A. K., and Atienza, D., 2010, “Fuzzy Control for Enforcing Energy Efficiency in High-Performance 3D Systems,” IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD), San Jose, CA, Nov. 7–11, pp. 642–648. [CrossRef]
Patankar, S. V., 1980, Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., New York.
Incropera, F. P., and DeWitt, D. P., 2002, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, Wiley, New York.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Staggered pin-fin enhanced microgap configurations: (a) single tier configuration and (b) double tier configuration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Boundary conditions for mesh independence study: (a) one row and (b) four rows

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Boundary layer mesh

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Discretization of pin-fin enhanced microgap: (a) planar view and (b) 3D view of cell P and its neighbors

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Fluid cells: (a) north side adjacent to pin and (b) south side adjacent to pin

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Fluid cells adjacent to channel walls: (a) north side adjacent to wall and (b) south side adjacent to wall

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison of compact model and CFD model—single tier steady state: (a) case 1 and (b) case 2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Comparison of compact model and CFD model—double tier transient: (a) maximum temperature varies with time, at t = 0, flow changed, heating unchanged, (b) maximum temperature varies with time, at t = 0, flow unchanged, heating powermap changed, (c) initial powermap for top tier in (b), nonuniform heating, and (d) initial powermap for bottom tier in (b), at t = 0, nonuniform heating

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Comparison of compact model and CFD model—single tier transient: (a) maximum temperature varies with time, at t = 0, flow and uniform heating both activated, (b) maximum temperature varies with time, at t = 0, flow unchanged, heating powermap changed, (c) initial powermap for (b), nonuniform heating, and (d) powermap applied starting at t = 0 for (b), nonuniform heating

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Flow rate determination algorithm—single tier

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

MatlabSimulink control model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Flow rate control scheme

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Comparison of compact model and CFD model—double tier steady state

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Powermap for top and bottom active layer

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Single pin contacting different material at tip

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Control volume of bottom solid layer

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Double tier staggered pin-fin enhanced microgap vertical layout

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Temperature under control—single tier: (a) temperature and mass flow rate varies with time, with controller activated, (b) temperature details at t = 10 min, and (c) temperature details at t = 80 min

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Flow rate determination algorithm—double tier

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Temperature under control—double tier

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In