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Research Papers

Thermo-Electric Modeling of Nanotube-Based Environmental Sensors

[+] Author and Article Information
Michael James Martin

Department of Mechanical and Industrial
Engineering,
Louisiana State University,
Baton Rouge, LA 70803
e-mail: martinm2@asme.org

Harish Manohara

Microdevices Laboratory,
Jet Propulsion Laboratory,
California Institute of Technology,
Pasadena, CA 91109

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received July 10, 2013; final manuscript received August 3, 2014; published online October 6, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Gamal Refai-Ahmed.

J. Electron. Packag 137(1), 011001 (Oct 06, 2014) (6 pages) Paper No: EP-13-1066; doi: 10.1115/1.4028185 History: Received July 10, 2013; Revised August 03, 2014

Free-standing electrically conductive nanotube and nanobridge structures offer a simple, small-scale, low-power option for pressure and temperature sensing. To sense pressure, a constant voltage is applied across the bridge. At small scales, the heat transfer coefficient is pressure-dependent. The change in the heat transfer coefficients results in the circuit operating at higher temperatures, with different resistances, at low pressures. This in turn will lead to a change in the electrical resistivity of the system. If the system is held at constant voltage, this can be measured as a change in the current in such systems, representing a simple alternative to existing Pirani gauges. The current work simulates the Joule heating, conduction and convection heat transfer of a 5 μm long suspended single-wall carbon-nanotube, incorporating temperature-sensitive material properties. The simulation allows prediction of the thermo-electrical response of the systems. The results agree with the trends observed in existing devices. Additional results look at the effects of system length, temperature, and contact resistances between the substrate and the device.

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Figures

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Fig. 2

Temperature distribution versus x for 5 μA current for different ambient pressures

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Fig. 3

Voltage versus current for 5 μm long suspended nanotube for various pressures

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Fig. 4

Electrical behavior versus pressure for 5 μm long suspended nanotube for various voltages. (a) Current versus pressure, (b) change in current versus pressure, and (c) power consumption versus pressure.

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Fig. 5

Temperature distribution versus x for 5 μA current for different ambient temperatures

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Fig. 6

Electrical behavior versus pressure for 5 μm long suspended nanotube for ambient temperatures. (a) Current versus pressure and (b) change in current versus pressure.

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Fig. 7

Temperature distribution versus x for suspended nanotubes of various lengths

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Fig. 8

Electrical behavior versus pressure for suspended nanotubes of various lengths. (a) Current versus pressure, (b) change in current versus pressure, and (c) power consumption versus pressure.

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Fig. 9

Temperature distribution versus x for suspended nanotubes with different thermo-electric coefficients

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Fig. 10

Electrical behavior versus pressure for suspended nanotubes with different thermo-electric coefficients. (a) Change in current versus pressure and (b) power consumption versus pressure.

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