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Research Papers

Thermal Analysis and Experimental Validation of Laminar Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Serpentine Channel Heat Sinks for Electronic Cooling

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiaohong Hao

School of Mechatronics Engineering,
University of Electronic Science and
Technology of China,
Chengdu, Sichuan 611731, China

Bei Peng

School of Mechatronics Engineering,
University of Electronic Science and
Technology of China,
Chengdu, Sichuan 611731, China
e-mail: beipeng@uestc.edu.cn

Gongnan Xie

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Northwestern Polytechnical University,
Xi'an, Shaanxi 710072, China
e-mail: xgn@nwpu.edu.cn

Yi Chen

School of Engineering and Built Environment,
Glasgow Caledonian University,
Glasgow G4 0BA, UK
e-mail: leo.chen@gcu.ac.uk

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received October 20, 2013; final manuscript received April 6, 2014; published online May 12, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Masaru Ishizuka.

J. Electron. Packag 136(3), 031009 (May 12, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: EP-13-1118; doi: 10.1115/1.4027508 History: Received October 20, 2013; Revised April 06, 2014

In this paper, a thermal resistance network analytical model is proposed to investigate the thermal resistance and pressure drop in serpentine channel heat sinks with 180 deg bends. The total thermal resistance is obtained using a thermal resistance network model based on the equivalent thermal circuit method. Pressure drop is derived considering straight channel and bend loss because the bends interrupt the hydrodynamic boundary periodically. Considering the effects of laminar flow development and redevelopment, the bend loss coefficient is obtained as a function of the Reynolds number, aspect ratios, widths of fins, and turn clearances, through a three-regime correlation. The model is then experimentally validated by measuring the temperature and pressure characteristics of heat sinks with different Reynolds numbers and different geometric parameters. Finally, the temperature-rise and pressure distribution of the thermal fluid with Reynolds numbers of 500, 1000, and 1500 are examined utilizing this model.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of a serpentine channel heat sink: (a) 3D model and (b) cross section

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Fig. 2

Thermal resistance network of a serpentine channel heat sink: (a) thermal resistance network of one channel and (b) thermal resistance network of the entire heat sink where convective resistances are equal to the R2R6 network

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Fig. 3

Computational grid and velocity: (a) grid at the bend region and (b) cross-sectional velocity

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Fig. 4

Bend loss coefficient as a function of a, b, and c

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Fig. 5

Experimental setup: (a) schematic view of the experimental setup, (b) schematic of the test module, and (c) schematic showing the positions of the PT temperature sensors

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Fig. 6

Fluid temperature-rise

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Fig. 7

Bend loss coefficient for different heat sinks and Reynolds numbers. The square, triangle and circle dots represent the experimental data for cases 1–3, respectively; the lines are the predictions by the analytical model.

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Fig. 8

Comparison of the thermal resistance and pressure drop obtained by experiments and modeling: (a) thermal resistance as a function of Re and (b) pressure drop as a function of Re

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Fig. 9

Comparison of the thermal resistance and pressure drop obtained by experiments and modeling of case 4: (a) thermal resistance as a function of uin/Re and (b) pressure drop as a function of uin/Re

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Fig. 10

Comparison of the thermal resistance and pressure drop obtained by experiments and modeling of case 5: (a) thermal resistance as a function of uin/Re and (b) pressure drop as a function of uin/Re

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Fig. 11

Comparison of the thermal resistance and pressure drop obtained by experiments and modeling of case 6: (a) thermal resistance as a function of uin/Re and (b) pressure drop as a function of uin/Re

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Fig. 12

Comparison of the thermal resistance and pressure drop obtained by experiments and modeling of case 7: (a) thermal resistance as a function of uin/Re and (b) pressure drop as a function of uin/Re

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Fig. 13

Comparison of the thermal resistance and pressure drop obtained by experiments and modeling of case 8: (a) thermal resistance as a function of uin/Re and (b) pressure drop as a function of uin/Re

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Fig. 14

Average temperature distribution at the bottom of the heat sink

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Fig. 15

Pressure distribution along the channel: (a) Re = 500, (b) Re = 1000, and (c) Re = 1500

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